16：英検対策準1級（Eiken Grade Pre-1）
10: Eiken Grade Pre-1 Vocabularies Lesson 10
Part 1: Vocabulary words
a careful search or examination in order to discover facts
■Example: Some of the world's leading airports are under investigation for alleged terrorist plots.
□Note: The word investigation comes from the Latin word vestigare, which means to track trace.
2. prediction noun (pri-dik-shuhn)
something predicted; a forecast, prophecy, etc.
■Example: For most developing countries, there is still a lot of room for improvement in current weather prediction technology.
□Note: Alternative words for prediction are forecasting and foretelling.
3. attendant noun (uh-ten-duhnt)
a person who attends another, as to perform a service
■Example: It is always nice to say please and thank you to the waitress and gas-station attendant.
□Note: Is it a practice in your country to give tips to hotel and restaurant attendants?
4. activist noun (ak-tuh-vist)
an especially active, vigorous advocate of a cause, especially a political cause
■Example: A Russian court sentenced political opposition activist Lena Osipova to eight years in prison.
□Note: The word activist may be confused with the words pacifist (a person who is opposed to war or to violence of any kind) and passivist (a person who is submissive).
5. confederation noun (kuhn-fed-uh-rey-shuhn)
a group of confederates, especially of states more or less permanently united for common purposes
■Example: The United States of America was originally a confederation of only 13 states from 1781-89.
□Note: Confederation is usually confused with the word federation; by definition, the difference between a confederation and a federation is that the membership of the member states in a confederation is voluntary, while the membership in a federation is not.
6. forestry noun (fawr-uh-stree, for-)
the science of planting and taking care of trees and forests
■Example: Around the world, many forestry officials now want forest fires to burn - as long as they don't endanger humans.
□Note: Do you have forestry policies against poachers and illegal loggers?
7. clinical adjective (klin-i-kuhl)
concerned with or based on actual observation and treatment of disease in patients rather than on theory
■Example: Scientists are now doing clinical trials of the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure.
□Note: The word clinical comes from the Latin word clinicus (hospital patients or hospital care), and the suffix –al(relating or pertaining to)
8. metropolis noun (mi-trop-uh-lis)
any large, busy city
■Example: Tokyo, aside from being the largest metropolis in the world, is one of the most influential cities in the world.
□Note: Metropolis comes from the Greek words metro (mother) and polis (town or city) to mean chief town or capital city of a province.
9. respondent noun (ri-spon-duhnt)
a person who responds or makes a reply
■Example: If you sat each respondent down and asked for a definition of heroism, you would get a thousand different answers.
□Note: in law, the word refers to a defendant, especially in appellate and divorce proceedings (e.g. The convicted respondent was required by the court to provide financial support to his wife and children).
10. workforce noun (work-fawrs)
the total number of persons employed or employable
■Example: There was a sharp increase in the nation's work force due to the improving economy.
□Note: The term generally excludes the employers or management, and implies those involved in manual labor; alternative expression: labor force.
Part 2: Exercise 1
Give the word being asked for each number.
__________ 1. the total number of persons employed or employable
__________ 2. a careful search or examination in order to discover facts
__________ 3. any large, busy city
__________ 4. a person who responds or makes a reply
__________ 5. careful search or examination in order to discover facts
__________ 6. the science of planting and taking care of trees and forests
__________ 7. a person who attends another, as to perform a service
__________ 8. concerned with or based on actual observation and treatment of disease in patients rather than on theory
__________ 9. an especially active, vigorous advocate of a cause, especially a political cause
__________ 10. a group of confederates, especially of states more or less permanently united for common
Part 2: Exercise 2
Choose the correct words to complete the sentences below.
1. Motorola will cut its _________ by 13% due to declining sales, thus preventing bankruptcy. To appease those who will be terminated, they will receive a satisfactory amount of separation pay from the company.
2. In its campaign for a smoke-free _________, the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA) on Monday launched a mobile smoking cessation clinic that plans to go around town to urge smokers to kick the habit.
3. Nostradamus (Michel de Nostredame) is a famous prophet from the 16th century noted for his _________ of the French Revolution, Adolph Hitler, the atomic bomb, the 9-11 atrocity, the JFK assassination, and just about everything else that has happened even hundreds of years after his death.
4. Based on its _________ tests on diabetes, the American Diabetes Association(ADA) recommends screening persons 45 years of age or older or those with other risk factors by means of fasting glucose or glycated hemoglobin testing.
5. Sustainable _________ includes uniting high biodiversity, a good ecosystem, and high production of timber in forests. However, all these are sometimes impossible to achieve due to the illegal activities of people.
6. John Huss was known to be a church ____________ and is considered as the first reformer of the church. He defied and rebelled against the Roman Catholic Church in what was known as the Hussite Wars. He inspired other reformists, one of them being Martin Luther King.
7. The explosion that hit Flaminia, a container vessel, calls for a thorough ___________ to avoid any presumptions that may just aggravate the situation. More so, the result may pave the way for better safety measures to avoid any similar accidents on board.
8. In the midst of the chaos and confusion brought about by the quick rise of water level inside the ship, the ___________ remained calm and directed all the passengers to safety. None of them left the place until they were sure that there were no more passengers left in the area.
9. In the survey that was held last month, it clearly showed that the ____________ believe that continuing the studies and research programs done by scholars are vital in improving the lives of the farmers in the region.
10. The _____________ that was formed five decades ago fell short on so many of its responsibilities and thus was deemed ineffective. That gave rise to the present constitution that suits the society, the culture and the people much better.