16：英検対策準1級（Eiken Grade Pre-1）
02: Eiken Grade Pre-1 Vocabularies Lesson 2
Part 1: Vocabulary words
to change, become different or modified
■Example: The design of the king’s suit was altered to suit his taste.
□Note: Can be confused with altar , alter.
2. measures noun (mehz-ers)
a particular action intended to achieve an effect, usually plural
■Example: People are taking measures now to prevent global warming.
□Note: What measures are the government taking to combat unemployment?
3. classify verb (klas-uh-fahy)
to arrange by order or classes, to categorize
■Example: Scientists classify tomatoes as fruits but most people think of them as vegetables.
□Note: How do you classify a novel?
4. boost verb (boost)
to increase or raise
■Example: Most people boost their confidence by studying a new language.
□Note: What measures can be done to boost the sales of products?
5. combat verb (kom-bat)
to fight against
■Example: The goal of WHO’s Feeding Program is to combat hunger around the world.
□Note: How do you combat forgetfulness?
6. breed noun (brid)
a class that is defined by the common attribute or attributes possessed by all its members.
■Example: The Japanese Spitz is a small to medium breed of the Spitz type.
□Note: What other dog breeds originate in Japan?
7. prohibit verb (proh-hib-bit)
to forbid or ban by authority
■Example: Smoking is prohibited in movie theaters.
□Note: IN BRIEF: To forbid by law or by an order. Also: To stop or hold back.
8. reproduce verb (ree-pruh-doos)
to make a copy, representation, duplicate, or close imitation of
■Example: We need to reproduce a hundred copies of the annual report for the delegates.
□Note: ORIGIN and HISTORY- 1611 “to produce again”, from re- “again” + produce (verb)
9. adapt verb (uh-dapt)
to adjust oneself to different conditions, environment, etc.
■Example: Mr. Tanaka and his family were able to adapt well in Boston a year after moving from Japan.
□Note: Can be confused with adapt, adept (skilled), adopt (to take as one’s own)
10. counter verb (koun-ter)
to move or act in opposition to
■Example: He tried to explain the disadvantages of proceeding with this project but I countered with the benefits.
□Note: How do you counter negative experiences?
Part2: Exercise 1
Give the word being asked for each number.
_____________ 1. a class that is defined by the common attribute or attributes possessed by all its members.
_____________ 2. to make a copy, representation, duplicate, or close imitation of
_____________ 3. to arrange by order or classes, to categorize
_____________ 4. to change, become different or modified
_____________ 5. to adjust oneself to different conditions, environment, etc.
_____________ 6. a particular action intended to achieve an effect, usually plural
_____________ 7. to move or act in opposition to
_____________ 8. to increase or raise
_____________ 9. to fight against
_____________ 10. to forbid or ban by authority
Part 2: Exercise 2
Choose the correct words to complete the sentences below.
1. Three million pounds from the Olympic budget is to be used to _______ domestic tourism to maximize the economic legacy of the London Games for the whole country.
2. Even though every country’s intelligence agency is working on combatting terrorism, terrorist threats are changing in ways that make them more dangerous and difficult to _________.
3. Emperor penguins are highly _______ to cold environments – and as the only animal that breeds during the Antarctic winter, they need to be.
4. Today, the Elaia Pharmaceutical Co. announced strategic _______ to better align its global workforce and consolidate site operations in order to integrate their legacy.
5. Iran's Interior Minister Mostafa Mohammad-Najjar said that Iran has intensified its______ against drug lords and mafias to promote safety and orderliness in the country.
6. The majority of lawmakers believe that there is a great need for the constitution to be ___________ due to the many changes that have occurred, moral progress. A big modification in the constitution is the only way to address unfair situations in society. However, it is a tedious process that takes much scrutiny.
7. The public was informed about the ordinance that __________ smoking in public areas mainly for the reason of protecting non-smokers or second-hand smokers. According to studies, second-hand smoke is considered a human carcinogen, which gives people higher tendencies to get cancer.
8. Rape, murder, and other crimes that cause grave damage to one’s body are ___________ as heinous crimes. In some countries, those crimes are punishable by death through hanging or lethal injection.
9. The American Pit Bull Terrier is infamous for being the most dangerous ___________ of dogs due to their awfully aggressive nature. Although illegal, dog fighting has become popular in some countries because of the ability of this dog to fight until it puts its opponent down.
10. The number of attendees at the seminar exceeded our expectations, so we had to scurry to the venue’s office and ask them the favor of letting us ____________ our manuals using their photocopier so we could provide everyone with the handouts.