難易度:上級

16:英検対策準1級(Eiken Grade Pre-1)

25: Eiken Grade Pre-1 Vocabularies Lesson 25

Part 1: Vocabulary words

1. Obstacle noun [ob-stuh-kuh l]
something that delays or holds back developments or improvements; hindrance
Example: Illiteracy is still the major obstacle in the much desired progress of the country.
Note: Tell me about the biggest obstacle in your life that you were able to overcome.

2. Transportation noun [trans-per-tey-shuh n]
the act or the means of moving or carrying a person or thing from one place to another
Example: The transportation of vegetables from the countryside to the city usually causes the prices of goods to be higher.
Note: What’s your most preferred kind of transportation?

3. Trial noun [trahy-uh l, trahyl]
an attempt to do something or a test
Example: Scientific experiments are sometimes trial and error.
Note: This word can also mean the judicial proceeding to examine facts that can determine an accused’s guilt or innocence in a crime.

4. Budget noun [buhj-it]
details of expected income and expenses in a certain period of time
Example: This year, the budget for the Education Department was increased and given priority.
Note: Give some tips on how to wisely manage your budget for a month.

5. Conflict noun [kon-flikt]
fight or struggle; disagreement in feelings, ideas, interests or principles
Example: Despite the conflict of ideas among the members of the team, they still tried to compromise with each other to come up with a better strategy on how to make the performance of the team better.
Note: Have you had any conflicts with your boss?

6. Expense noun [ik-spens]
cost or cause of spending
Example: The pensions of the elderly is one of the biggest expenses of the country.
Note: This word came from the Old-French word ‘espense’, which means ‘money provided for expenses’.

7. Contract noun [kon-trakt]
an agreement (usually written) between two parties under the authority of the law
Example: The presidents of the two companies negotiated some alterations of the contract before they signed it.
Note: Why is it important for one to carefully read all the details of a contract before signing it?

8. Gender noun [jen-der]
sex: male or female; masculine or feminine
Example: In this modern time, people don’t take one’s gender into consideration anymore. The ability and the personality of the person are the things that count the most.
Note: What do you think about gender discrimination?

9. Literacy noun [lit-er-uh-see]
the state of being able to read and write; having education or knowledge
Example: The literacy rate drastically dropped in the last three years of his term in office, which a lot of people attribute to poverty.
Note: Its opposite word is ‘illiteracy’.

10. Subsidy noun [suhb-si-dee]
financial support given by the government usually for public welfare; monetary grant
Example: Finally, the increase in the agricultural subsidy has been approved.
Note: This word came from the Old French word ‘subside’, which means ‘to help or aid’.

Part 2: Exercise 1



Give the word being asked for each number.

■subsidy ■literacy ■gender ■contract ■expense
■conflict ■budget ■trial ■transportation ■obstacle


___________1. cost or cause of spending
___________ 2. an attempt to do something or a test
___________ 3. financial support given by the government usually for public welfare; monetary grant
___________ 4. the act or the means of moving or carrying a person or thing from one place to another
___________ 5. the state of being able to read and write; having education or knowledge
____________6. sex: male or female; masculine or feminine
___________ 7. something that delays or holds back developments or improvements
___________ 8. details of expected income and expenses in a certain period of time
___________ 9. an agreement (usually written) between two parties under the authority of the law
___________ 10. fight or struggle; disagreement in feelings, ideas, interests or principles

Part 2: Exercise 2



Choose the correct words to complete the sentences below.


1. It was publicized that the famous magician, before marrying the love of his life, asked hisfiancée to sign a ___________ stating that she, in no way, shall disclose the secrets of his magic. However, the legal liabilities of breaking the agreement were not disclosed.

(1) Expense
(2) Contract
(3) Transportation
(4) Obstacle

2. The women activist groups have certainly made a huge leap in the recognition of the power of their _____________in the society. However, in the Imperial family, the emperor can only be succeeded by a male heir.

(1) Budget
(2) Conflict
(3) Gender
(4) Trial

3. Ever since India has gained its independence, one of its main priorities has been to provide ___________ to many industries and products. However, the financial aid that the government gives is highly criticized by the World Bank who states that it only increases economic inefficiency.

(1) Literacy
(2) Expense
(3) Transportation
(4) Subsidies

4. If you want to give your fiancée the grandest wedding she could ever imagine, you should allot a ____________ of at least $80,000. This is for a wedding with 180 guests at one of the most luxurious islands in the world.

(1) Budget
(2) Trial
(3) Expense
(4) Subsidy

5. Prices of vegetables in the city become higher because of _______________costs. Most produce come from the countryside and are brought to the city by different carriers.

(1) Transportation
(2) Obstacle
(3) Literacy
(4) Trial

6. There are indeed a lot of _____________ that impede communication, which sometimes even lead to misunderstandings. These hindrances should be recognized to make communication more effective.

(1) Genders
(2) Obstacles
(3) Contracts
(4) Budgets

7. With only a 54% ____________ rate of adults in the land, it is almost impossible to pull the country out of poverty. This means that only these people can generate higher income tax for the government by securing decent jobs.

(1) Contract
(2) Conflict
(3) Subsidy
(4) Literacy

8. The president made it clear that he won't intervene in the ___________ among therepresentatives of the upper house. He just suggested that they settle their differences in a senate debate instead of unreasonably appealing their arguments to the media.

(1) Trial
(2) Conflict
(3) Budget
(4) Contract

9. As matured and responsible as he is, even before getting married, he was alreadyprepared for the _____________ of having a baby. Amazingly, he has already estimatedthe cost of delivery and raising the child up until at least 7 years old.

(1) Subsidy
(2) Obstacle
(3) Transportation
(4) Expense

10. It took a lot of ____________ before finally coming up with a treatment for an illness.Through years of testing, finally, they were able to invent a miracle drug that builds an antibody that blocks cancer protein.

(1) Contracts
(2) Trials
(3) Conflicts
(4) Literacy