難易度:上級

16:英検対策準1級(Eiken Grade Pre-1)

26: Eiken Grade Pre-1 Vocabularies Lesson 26

Part 1: Vocabulary words

1. Descent noun [dih-sent]
downward movement or the act of moving from a higher to a lower place or ranking
Example: One of the most interesting parts of the voyage of Odysseus was his descent to the underworld.
Note: Actually, this word came from a Latin term which means ‘to climb’.

2. Prodigy noun [prod-i-jee]
a young person who can become an excellent example with his extraordinary abilities and skills
Example: Jean Piagetwas a child prodigy who, at the age of 11, published a paper about an albino sparrow.
Note: The word ‘prodigy’ can be confused with the word ‘protégé’. ‘Protégé’ means a person who is under the care of someone interested in his career or welfare.

3. Retailer noun [ree-tey-ler]
a person who sells goods in small quantities
Example: As a retailer, he had a very small beginning. Now, he owns a huge grocery store.
Note: The word ‘retail’ can be used as a noun, as an adjective, as an adverb and as a verb.

4. Invasion noun [in-vey-zhuh n]
the act of entering to gain possession of or to affect destructively or harmfully
Example: The Spanish invasion of different countries in the world is totally insurmountable.
Note: What do you think about the invasion of privacy?

5. Outburst noun [out-burst]
an abrupt release or outpouring of emotion that’s usually violent; public disturbance
Example: Everybody was stunned by her sudden outburst of tears when somebody mentioned the name of her late father.
Note: Do you have a tendency to have an outburst of anger?

6. Reputation noun [rep-yuh-tey-shuh n]
what one is known for by the public
Example: Businessmen are wary about having a business deal with him because of his shrewd reputation.
Note: What do you think is your reputation as a ____________?

7. Fossil noun [fos-uh l]
any remains or trace of a living thing from a very old period
Example: The existence of dinosaurs was discovered through their skeletons and fossils.
Note: This word came from the French word ‘fossile’, which means ‘obtained by digging’.

8. Herd noun [hurd]
a number of animals together; a large group of people
Example: A herd of photographers swarmed the actress when she finally arrived in the country after being gone for almost a decade.
Note: This word is used in the idiom ‘ride herd on’, which means to ‘take control of or to maintain discipline over’.

9. Depression noun [dih-presh-uh n]
a mental disorder wherein one feels a deep sense of sadness and helplessness, sometimes accompanied by guilt; a condition of not being able to feel any pleasure or elation
Example: She has been taking medicine for almost 5 years now due to depression.
Note: This word can also mean ‘a lowering in amount, degree or position’.

10. Firm noun [furm]
company, business or a partnership for carrying on a business
Example: Even though it is still unstable, his father’s firm is surely growing.
Note: This word can also be used as an adjective. As an adjective, it means ‘not soft; stiff’.

Part 2: Exercise 1



Give the word being asked for each number.

■descent ■prodigy ■retailer ■firm ■depression
■herd ■fossil ■reputation ■outburst ■invasion


___________1. an abrupt release or outpouring of emotion that’s usually violent; a public disturbance
___________ 2. a mental disorder wherein one feels a deep sense of sadness and helplessness, sometimes accompanied by guilt; a condition of not being able to feel any pleasure or elation
___________ 3. any remains or trace of a living thing from a very old period
___________ 4. a person who sells goods in small quantities
___________ 5. company, business or a partnership for carrying on a business
____________6. a young person who can become an excellent example with his extraordinary abilities and skills
___________ 7. downward movement or the act of moving from a higher to a lower place or ranking
___________ 8. a number of animals together; a large group of people
___________ 9. the act of entering to gain possession of or to affect destructively or harmfully
___________ 10. what one is known for by the public

Part 2: Exercise 2



Choose the correct words to complete the sentences below.


1. For almost three decades, it stood as the most stable ____________ in the industry, until strong competitors made their way. The company is now struggling to survive and is now at risk for bankruptcy.

(1) Prodigy
(2) Descents
(3) Reputations
(4) Firms

2. Establishing facts about the discoveries of species in the remote past is quite impossible without ______________. These traces of animals, plants and other organisms can be found in rock formations and can be as old as 3.4 billion years old.

(1) Retailers
(2) Fossils
(3) Invasion
(4) Descent

3. Aside from the pills that she takes to treat her _____________, she also undergoes psychological treatment for the trauma that she experiences from the accident that she had a few months back. It's undeniable how the incident damaged her not just physically, but also emotionally.

(1) Depression
(2) Outburst
(3) Reputation
(4) Herd

4. His novels played around the ____________of angels from the heavens and how they learned to get along with humans and survive a worldly life. It was fascinating how he magically described the heavenly angels as they magically went down to the earth.

(1) Invasion
(2) Descent
(3) Prodigy
(4) Fossil

5. Ever since he was young, people have made fun of him because of his ____________ of laughter and cries. Little did they know that he has been suffering from a rare condition called 'gelastic seizure', which is characterized by a sudden surge of energy.

(1) Outbursts
(2) Reputations
(3) Herds
(4) Firms

6. He was only 4 years old when the world witnessed his rare talent in music. After two decades, the once child ______________ appeared on TV to tell of his fall from fame andhow he battled the depression to rise again.

(1) Descent
(2) Retailer
(3) Depression
(4) Prodigy

7. The world grieved when they lost a very prominent figure in the history of public service. She was well loved by people for having such an unquestionable ______________ as a philanthropist, giving up all comfort and conveniences to serve of the poorest of the poor.

(1) Invasion
(2) Reputation
(3) Fossil
(4) Prodigy

8. Those who can't afford a huge investment usually settle for small businesses and become ____________. They must ensure the constant restocking of goods to provide their consumers with what they need.

(1) Retailers
(2) Prodigies
(3) Descents
(4) Outbursts

9. An unexpected commotion in front of the Supreme Court happened when a ____________ of people aggressively swarmed the area. The people were infuriated when the judge acquitted the suspect for multiple killings in the city.

(1) Depression
(2) Herd
(3) Fossil
(4) Outburst

10. The high-ranking official abused his power and asked his men to be involved in the _____________ of his ex-wife's privacy. It seems like he still can't get over his past relationship because he still wants to intrude in her life.

(1) Reputation
(2) Descent
(3) Depression
(4) Invasion