難易度:上級

16:英検対策準1級(Eiken Grade Pre-1)

35: Eiken Grade Pre-1 Vocabularies Lesson 35

Part 1: Vocabulary words

1. Stem noun [stem]
the part of a tree that holds or supports the leaf, flower or fruit
Example: We had to cut the overgrown stems of the plant to shape it well.
Note: This word can also be used as a verb which means ‘to arise’.

2. Circumstance noun [sur-kuh m-stans]
the thing or factor that modifies, affects, or determines a fact or event
Example: Impoverished children are truly victims of their circumstances and it’s quite difficult to come up with a way to pull them out of their situation.
Note: The idiom ‘under no circumstance’ means ‘never or in no case’.

3. Treaty noun [tree-tee]
an agreement, a formal one, between states or countries regarding peace, trades, alliances, etc.
Example: A treaty between the United States of America and Spain set the Philippines free from the Spanish colony.
Note: The word ‘treaty’ came from the Old French word ‘traite’, which means ‘assembly or agreement’.

4. Personnel noun [pur-suh-nel]
a person hired by a company, a business or an organization to render a service
Example: Only authorized personnel are allowed to enter that restricted area due to some confidential files therein.
Note: It is already accepted to use ‘personnel’ as a plural.

5. Appliance noun [uh-plahy-uh ns]
a device that is used for a particular function
Example: To ensure safety, make it a habit to unplug all appliances that are not in use.
Note: It came from the two words apply + -ance, which means ‘instrument for a purpose’.

6. Symptom noun [simp-tuh m]
a sign that indicates the existence of something
Example: Some of the symptoms of a urinary tract infection are a recurring urge to urinate and pain in the lower abdomen, sides and back.
Note: What are the symptoms of having the flu?

7. Allowance noun [uh-lou-uh ns]
amount allotted for something
Example: Distance isn’t a problem for him even though he lives far from his workplace because he receives a transportation allowance anyway.
Note: The word ‘allowance’ is used in the idiom ‘make allowance/s for’, which means ‘to excuse or to take some factors into consideration’.

8. Colleague noun [kol-eeg]
co-worker or an associate
Example: After I resigned from my company, I found out that three of my former colleagues were laid-off because their department was abolished.
Note: It comes from the Latin word ‘collega’, which means ‘partner in office’.

9. Completion noun [kuh m-plee-shuh n]
the act of making something whole by providing all the necessary elements
Example: Completion of tasks is a lot easier when done by people working harmoniously together.
Note: How long does the completion of an average house take?

10. Controversy noun [kon-truh-vur-see]
a public disagreement on opinion
Example: Unsettled differences between the state and the church have been a long-running controversy in Christian countries.
Note: Can you remember any controversies that your country has been involved in?

Part 2: Exercise 1



Give the word being asked for each number.

■Controversy ■Completion ■Colleague ■Allowance ■Symptom
■Appliance ■Personnel ■Treaty ■Circumstance ■Stem


___________1. the act of making something whole by providing all the necessary elements
___________ 2. a public disagreement on opinion
___________ 3. a person hired by a company, a business or an organization to render a service
___________ 4. a sign that indicates the existence of something
___________ 5. amount allotted for something
____________6. the thing or factor that modifies, affects, or determines a fact or event
___________ 7. an agreement, a formal one, between states or countries regarding peace, trades, alliances, etc.
___________ 8. the part of a tree that holds or supports the leaf, flower or fruit
___________ 9. co-worker or an associate
___________ 10. a device that is used for a particular function

Part 2: Exercise 2



Choose the correct words to complete the sentences below.


1. The recruitment officer has already contacted an advertising agency because they need to add 100 ____________. Additional people are needed because the company is expanding its operations to different parts of the country.

(1) Colleagues
(2) Appliances
(3) Allowances
(4) Personnel

2. All the factors that affect the procedure's results will be evaluated upon its ________________. In conclusion, we will be able to eliminate those that contribute to its failure and strengthen those that make it successful.

(1) Completion
(2) Circumstance
(3) Symptom
(4) Controversy

3. Some diseases are diagnosed when already in the terminal stage mainly because the patient ignores the signs of the illness. There are also some _________________ that are manifested intermittently that make patients think that it’s nothing fatal or dangerous.

(1) Treaties
(2) Symptoms
(3) Appliances
(4) Circumstances

4. Conflicts with ________________ shouldn't be elevated immediately to the supervisor. One should first take the initiative to solve the problem with one's co-worker before making a drastic stepto aggravate the situation.

(1) Colleagues
(2) Controversies
(3) Appliances
(4) Stems

5. Global warming has made hot climates extremely hot and cold climates extremely cold. Residents of the north even had to buy additional heating _____________to keep them warm during the winter season.

(1) Stems
(2) Appliances
(3) Circumstances
(4) Personnel

6. Instead of giving an expensive bouquet of roses, a single rose with a long _____________can also make a man win a woman’s heart. It is a lot more affordable, but that stalk gives it a strong sense of romanticism.

(1) Stem
(2) Symptom
(3) Controversy
(4) Allowance

7. The officials are now investigating the contributing _______________that led to the tragic car accident that took many lives. However, they still can't gather information from the survivors as to what happened because they are still in shock.

(1) Appliances
(2) Symptoms
(3) Circumstances
(4) Personnel

8. Mr. and Mrs. Jackson’s youngest child asked for an additional _____________for next semester because he was informed by his professors that they'll be working on a lot of projects. He expects them to be very costly so he needs more money to expend for them.

(1) Controversy
(2) Allowance
(3) Appliances
(4) Circumstances

9. The United States of America has an agreement with other countries about transferring a suspected or convicted criminal from other countries back to America and vice-versa. Through extradition _____________, countries have the legal right and responsibility to arrest a fugitive according to the country's laws and practices.

(1) Treaties
(2) Controversies
(3) Allowances
(4) Personnel

10. No matter how bad the ______________surrounding the history of the royal family are, the respect of the people for them will never wane. In the eyes of their supporters, those are only intended to malign the noble family's reputation.

(1) Colleagues
(2) Controversies
(3) Stems
(4) Treaties