16：英検対策準1級（Eiken Grade Pre-1）
38: Eiken Grade Pre-1 Vocabularies Lesson 38
Part 1: Vocabulary words
a person or group of persons holding a high, managerial or supervisory authority in a group, a body or an organization
■Example: An urgent meeting of the executives was called for when the sales of the company suddenly dropped by 25%.
□Note: While ‘executive’ is a noun, the word ‘execute’ is a verb which means ‘to carry out’.
2. Infrastructure noun [in-fruh-struhk-cher]
the basic structure or framework of an organization or a building
■Example: There was a huge change in the media infrastructure.
□Note: The word ‘infrastructure’ is actually the collective term for the roads, buildings, bridges, railway, etc. that are substantial in making an industrial economy function.
3. Compensation noun [kom-puh n-sey-shuh n]
something that is given to someone for work or services done, for debt or loss, or for injury
■Example: Mr. Donald is demanding compensation for the damage that our car inflicted on theirs when I hit it while parking my car behind theirs.
□Note: ‘Compensate’ is the verb form of ‘compensation’. It means to offset (I can’t take a day-off anymore because I have to compensate for my absences at work.) or to make up (Nothing can compensate for all the sufferings she experienced because of you.)
4. Consistency noun [kuh n-sis-tuh n-see]
the condition of being in agreement or in harmony with other parts, facts or information, etc.
the state of being coherent among other things (or parts)
■Example: The suspect was acquitted because the statement of the witnesses failed to pass with consistency.
□Note: ‘Consistent’ is the adjective form of ‘consistency. It means compatible or in agreement or steady.
5. Bond noun [bond]
something that serves as a tie, cord, etc. to fasten, join, unite; something that holds things together
■Example: Social networking sites and advanced mobile technology have affected the bond among families and friends both in positive and negative ways.
□Note: The word ‘bondable’ is an adjective that means ‘can be bonded’.
6. Expertise noun [ek-sper-teez]
skill or knowledge in a particular field that is mastered
■Example: He gained his expertise in reproductive research through 20 years of practice.
□Note: What do you consider your expertise?
7. Recognition noun [rek-uh g-nish-uh n]
the act of acknowledging that something is true or valid or existent
the act of perceiving the existence of something
■Example: The overwhelming applause that he received from the people is far more than the recognition given to him by the international media award.
□Note: What do you think is the most prestigious recognition ever that one can receive?
8. Erosion noun [ih-roh-zhuh n]
the act of destroying through slow disintegration or crumbling
the act or process of soil wearing away due to different factors like weathering
■Example: A major cause of the destruction of the ecosystem is soil erosion.
□Note: What are some factors that cause the enamel of your teeth to erode?
9. Assistance noun [uh-sis-tuh ns]
the act of helping or giving aid; help or aid given
■Example: If not for the health care assistance that his company provided for him, he wouldn’t be able to pay for his hospital bills.
□Note: There’s also the word ‘assistant’, which means a person who helps.
10. Contribution noun [kon-truh-byoo-shuh n]
money, time, supplies, knowledge, assistance, etc. that is given for certain purposes
■Example: Even small contributions are considered a big help for the victims of the devastating typhoon that hit the Philippines.
□Note: Synonymous terms for the word ‘contribution’ are ‘gift, donation and benefaction’.
Part 2: Exercise 1
Give the word being asked for each number.
_______________ 1. the act of helping or giving an aid; help or aid given
_______________ 2. the state of being coherent among other things (or parts)
_______________ 3. something that is given to someone for work or services done, for debt or loss, or for injury
_______________ 4. the act of destroying through slow disintegration or crumbling
_______________ 5. the act of acknowledging that something is true or valid or existent
_______________ 6. the basic structure or framework of an organization or a building
_______________ 7. money, time, supplies, knowledge, assistance, etc. that is given for certain purposes
_______________ 8. skill or knowledge in a particular field that is mastered
_______________ 9. something that serves as a tie, cord, etc. to fasten, join, unite; something that holds things together
_______________ 10. a person or group of persons holding a high, managerial or supervisory authority in a group, a body or an organization
Part 2: Exercise 2
Choose the correct words to complete the sentences below.
1. The high ranking officials of Zenith Company are aiming to boost its sales by 50% this year. They are now hiring a new marketing __________ and additional marketing staff to invigorate their campaigns to promote their products.
2. Steve Jobs made his mark around the globe through his unrivaled ____________in computer and consumer electronics. He was known to be the pioneer of the personal computer revolution through his remarkable innovations.
3. At work, company rules and regulations need not only be specific but must also show _____________. When there is a resolute agreement in company policies, workplaces appear more organized and are thus easier to run and handle.
4. Putting an end to apartheid is one of Nelson Mandela's greatest _____________ to humanity. He paved the way to true equality by ending racial segregation in his country, which drastically inspired a change in the situation in other countries as well.
5. _____________ plays a very important role in the economic development of a country. Roads, seaports, and railroads aid in increasing productivity, raising profitability and encouraging economic activities.
6. Anger management is best started with identifying what triggers violent and destructive behaviors. _______________of these starts with knowing yourself better and knowing how you'll be able to avoid those buttons.
7. Our services do not stop with merely introducing and selling our products. We also assure our clients that we will provide them with the maximum expert _____________ they need.
8. It's widely known that nothing can be compared to the ____________between a mother and a child. It's the sacrifices and the unconditional love that she has for her child that makes the relationship so indescribably strong.
9. On Jamaican coast lines, severe hurricanes can cause extreme ___________ that may be irreparable for several years. Because the reserves are swept far over the edge of the island, the recovery of their beaches may take some time.
10. After winning the lawsuit, they asked for a ____________amounting to $20,000. The said the payment would cover all the legal expenditures and damages caused by the legal proceedings against them.