16：英検対策準1級（Eiken Grade Pre-1）
07: Eiken Grade Pre-1 Vocabularies Lesson 7
Part 1: Vocabulary words
to withstand, strive against, or oppose
■Example: She couldn’t resist eating chocolate.
□Note: Idioms: mount/offer resistance, put up a fight, standup to/against.
2. Formalize verb (fawr-muh-lahyz)
to make official or valid
■Example: He wanted to formalize the marriage proposal so he did it in the hotel with their parents, relatives and friends.
□Note: formal + ize (is added to adjectives and nouns to “to convert into, give a specified character or form to” (computerize; dramatize; itemize; motorize)
3. Legalize verb (lee-guh-lahyz)
to make legal or authorize by law; allow or validate
■Example: In recent years, legalized gambling has exploded far beyond Las Vegas and Reno.
□Note: Antonyms: deny, prohibit, refuse, veto
4. Centralize verb (sen-truh-lahyz)
to bring under a single, central authority
■Example: The country will centralize all of its lawmakers so there can be more agreement among them.
□Note: IN BRIEF: To bring or come to a middle area, especially to bring under one's control.
5. Archive verb (ahr-kahyv)
to place or store in an archive, record or document
■Example: The record of births, deaths and marriages are archived in the Statistics Bureau of Japan.
□Note: noun A place where something is deposited for safekeeping: depository, magazine, repository, store, storehouse, warehouse.
6. Argument noun (ahr-gyuh-muhnt)
an oral disagreement; a discussion involving differing points of view; debate
■Example: In order to maintain a healthy argument, always refrain from being personal.
□Note: An ARGUMENT usually arises from a disagreement between two persons, each of whom advances facts supporting his or her own point of view.
7. Plead verb (pleed)
claim,to declare oneself to be (guilty or not guilty) in answer to a charge
■Example: He chose to plead guilty with a shorter sentence rather than plead insane.
□Note: Usage Note: In strict legal usage, one is said to plead guilty or plead not guilty but not to plead innocent. In non-legal contexts, however, plead innocent is well established.
8. Pawnbroker noun (pawn-broh-ker)
dealer licensed to lend money at a specified rate of interest on the security of movable personal property, which can be sold if the loan is not repaid within a specified period
■Example: The pawnbroker offered her a very low amount for her diamond ring.
□Note: Pawn (verb) means to deposit as security, as for money borrowed, especially with a pawnbroker.
9. Threat noun (thret)
an indication or warning of probable trouble
■Example: The residents in the coastal area were asked to move to a safer place because there was a threat of a tsunami.
□Note: What practices are threats to health?
10. Immigrant noun (im-i-gruhnt)
a person who leaves one country to settle permanently in another
■Example: Japan has the lowest percentage of immigrants of any industrialized country.
□Note: As of 2009 there were about 2.19 million non-ethnic Japanese in Japan, or about 1.71 percent of Japan’s overall population of 127.5 million.
Part 2: Exercise 1
Give the word being asked for each number.
_____________ 1. to make legal or authorize by law; allow or validate
_____________ 2. to withstand, strive against, or oppose
_____________3. dealer licensed to lend money at a specified rate of interest onthe security of movable personal property, which can be sold if the loan is not repaid within a specified period
_____________ 4. an indication or warning of probable trouble
_____________ 5. a person who leaves one country to settle permanently in another
_____________ 6. to bring under a single, central authority
_____________ 7. an oral disagreement; a discussion involving differing points of view; debate
_____________ 8. to make official or valid
_____________ 9. claim,to declare oneself to be (guilty or not guilty) in answer to a charge
_____________10. to place or store in an archive, record or document
Part 2: Exercise 2
Choose the correct words to complete the sentences below.
1. With most functions ___________ at the home headquarters in St. Louis, cohesiveness throughout the regions should be more easily implemented.
2. This may seem like a dull task that can wait, but without ____________ a restaurant structure, you can’t open a bank account for the business or try to get outside investors.
3.A short list of the _________ identified by survey participants in this report would include: unplanned IT/Telecom outage(s), adverse weather, cyber-attack, acts of terrorism, utility interruption(s), availability of workforce(s), new laws and/or regulations, social/civil unrest, major customer/supplier disruption(s), or the availability/cost of credit/finance.
4. Being an avid smoker in Ohio, John wanted Congress to _______ smoking in restaurants.
5. By far the biggest reason for people to _______change is because fear creates paralysis.
6. The government pleads for all ___________ to share their stories so they come up with better ideas on how they can build an immigration system that will guide them in handling cases in the fairest and most effective manner.
7. His _____________ are subjective and most of his points are exterior to the topic at hand. There’s no use pushing through with this discussion, so I suggest we just move this activity to tomorrow.
8. Eyes widened upon seeing the actor’s photographic ____________ that he compiled ever since he was young. The photos included in the collection were shot by his great-grandfather, grandfather and father who didn’t cut the lineage of artistry in their family.
9. Much to everyone’s surprise, the man suspected of serial killings in their town _____________ guilty in the court. Rumor had it that he was just following the advice given to him by his lawyers to avoid grave punishment for what he did.
10. The personal belongings of a client are well examined by a ________________to ensure that they are sellable and valuable enough to secure a loan. It takes a lot of skills to assess the value of those collaterals.