16：英検対策準1級（Eiken Grade Pre-1）
08: Eiken Grade Pre-1 Vocabularies Lesson 8
Part 1: Vocabulary words
owed at present; having reached the date for payment
■Example: These electricity and water bills are due next month, and must be paid on time to prevent surcharges and the possible disconnection of services.
□Note: Due to as a prepositional phrase meaning because of, owing to has been in use since the 14th century (e.g. Due to the sudden rainstorm, the picnic was moved indoors.)
2. Scholarship noun (skol-er-ship)
a sum of money or other aid granted to a student, because of merit, need, etc., to pursue his or her studies
■Example: Institutions, organizations and the British Government offer college scholarships and awards to help cover course fees and the cost of UK living of deserving international students.
□Note: What are the ways to get college scholarships in your country?
3. Agricultural adjective (ag-ri-kuhl-cher-uhl)
the science, art, or occupation concerned with cultivating land, raising crops, and feeding, breeding, and raising livestock; farming
■Example: This year’s drought in America is the worst agricultural problem in 50 years, causing high crop prices and $30 billion in crop insurance claims.
□Note: The noun form agriculture comes from the Latin words agri (field) + cultura (cultivation), referring to cultivation of land; the suffix –al,added to it (=agricultural), means pertaining to.
4. Objective noun (uhb-jek-tiv)
something that one's efforts or actions are intended to attain or accomplish
■Example: Behind the urgent view of North Korea's nuclear activities lies a complicated objective of invading South Korea.
□Note: alternative words for objective are purpose and goal
5. Groundwater noun (ground-waw-ter, wot-er)
water that collects or flows beneath the Earth's surface, filling the porous spaces in soil
■Example: Agricultural irrigation is the largest user of groundwater in America at 53.5 billion gallons a day followed by public use via public water systems or private household wells at a combined total of 18.3 billion gallons per day.
□Note: Groundwater originates from rain and from melting snow and ice and is the source of water for aquifers, springs, and wells.
6. Dependency noun (dih-pen-duhn-see)
state of relying on someone or something else for aid, support, etc.
■Example: Much of Japan’s oil is imported, creating a dependency on sources that are unpredictable and costly.
□Note: How do you think your government can reduce its dependency on imported oil? Can alternative sources of energy (e.g. solar, wind, and geothermal) help?
7. Asset noun (as-et)
a useful thing, or something of value
■Example: The well-educated children were an asset to their family and community.
□Note: In business, “asset” refers to something possessed by a business entity from which future economic benefits may be obtained(e.g. Toyota Motor Corporation registered a total of ¥30.650 trillion in assets, and was the world's second largest automobile manufacturer in 2010 by production).
8. Offspring noun (awf-spring, of-)
children or young of a particular parent
■Example: The offspring of musical parents, the great British musician Barry Gray was born in Lancashire, receiving a sound musical education.
□Note: Related words: baby, young
9. Boundary noun (boun-duh-ree, -dree)
something that indicates bounds or limits; a limiting or bounding line
■Example: The Korean Demilitarized Zone (KDZ), which runs along the 38th parallel north, is a strip of land running across the Korean Peninsula that serves as a boundary zone between North and South Korea.
□Note: related words are bounds, edge, and limit.
10. Ransom noun (ran-suhm)
the redemption of a prisoner, slave, or kidnapped person, of captured goods, etc., for a price
■Example: In 2007, Afghan soldiers demanded a $6-million-dollar ransom in exchange for the release of four kidnapped American Navy officers and three media men.
□Note: As a verb, ransom means to redeem, rescue (e.g. Jesus Christ ransomed men from sin.).
Part 2: Exercise 1
Give the word being asked for each number.
__________ 1. children or young of a particular parent
__________ 2. water that collects or flows beneath the Earth's surface, filling the porous spaces in soil
__________ 3. the redemption of a prisoner, slave, or kidnapped person, of captured goods, etc., for a price
__________ 4. something that one's efforts or actions are intended to attain or accomplish
__________ 5. the science, art, or occupation concerned with cultivating land, raising crops, and feeding, breeding, and raising livestock; farming
__________ 6. owed at present; having reached the date for payment
__________ 7. a sum of money or other aid granted to a student, because of merit, need, etc., to pursue his or her studies.
__________ 8. state of relying on someone or something else for aid, support, etc.
__________ 9. a useful thing, or something of value
__________ 10. something that indicates bounds or limits; a limiting or bounding line
Part 2: Exercise 2
Choose the correct words to complete the sentences below.
1. Like Japan, China has little land in proportion to its population, and its _________ sector is not internationally competitive. This is why it compensates in other areas like technology and manufacturing products.
2. _________ provides a third of the drinking water in England and Wales, and it also maintains the flow of many of its rivers. Some natives said that it is the source of life of all living things in the land.
3. A mule is the hybrid _________ of a male donkey and a female horse. It resembles a donkey more because of its long ears, thin limbs, narrow hooves and thick head. However, its height and body resemble a horse more .
4. In October of 2006, Indonesia finished repaying all its debts, which were _________ , to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), ending an eight-year, up-and-down relationship with the global financial agency.
5. Beijing reacted angrily against Washington’s claim that China’s_________ for increasing military might is to suppress peace efforts in the Asia-Pacific region.
6. Anyone who illegally dares to cross the Korean Demilitarized Zone, the strip of land that sets the _____________ between the north and the south, are likely be detained and questioned, die of land mine, or worse, be shot even before you set both your feet across.
7. Officials handling the kidnap for ransom case of Warren Rodwell did not agree in the payment of his _____________ because it could only trigger more abductions in the region. However, since the relatives of the victim agreed on giving the demanded amount to ensure the safety of their loved one, the “No Ransom” policy couldn’t be enforced.
8. The president’s reputation was tarnished when rumors about the president’s inability to make his own decisions and his ______________ on his advisers broke out in the media. Critics believe that a leader without a backbone leads a puppet government.
9. Lawmakers should submit their sworn statements of ___________ and liabilities annually. Failure to do so might cause an official to be impeached from his post.
10. Despite his parents’ inability to give him a good education, he was able to attain his college degree through the ___________ granted to him by his university, which he maintained through diligence, hardwork and perseverance.