難易度:上級

16:英検対策準1級(Eiken Grade Pre-1)

09: Eiken Grade Pre-1 Vocabularies Lesson 9

Part 1: Vocabulary words

1. provided conjunction (pruh-vahy-did)
on the condition or understanding (that)
Example: She will go to the party provided that her friends will too.
Note: The conjunctions (in grammar, a conjunction (abbreviated conj. or cnj.) is a part of speech that connects two words, sentences, phrases or clauses together) provided and providing are interchangeable (e.g. Provided (or Providing ) no further objections are raised, we will consider the matter settled.); alternative conjunctions to provided are in case, granted, and if. Provided (having made available), used as a verb, is the past tense/participle of provided (e.g. The president provided all soldiers their needs including food and clothing.).

2. revenue noun (rev-uhn-yoo, -uh-noo)
the income of a government from taxation, customs, or other sources, appropriated to the payment of the public expenses.
Example: Worldwide, revenues from social networks like Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn will grow an impressive 43.1 percent year-over-year in 2012, putting the total amount of income generated at $16.9 billion.
Note: Revenue comes from the prefix re-(back) + the Latin word venire (come) to eventually mean public income.

3. modernization noun (mod-er-neeh-zey-shuhn,-nahy-)
state of having a new character or appearance to
Example: The 2009 modernization program of RussianPresident Dmitry Medvedev included nuclear and information technologies.
Note: What are the modernization programs of your country?

4. generosity noun (jen-uh-ros-i-tee)
readiness or liberality in giving
Example: The spirit of generosity demonstrated by British people during the London 2012 Olympics has been hailed by the Games' chief Lord Coe.
Note: Generosity comes from the Latin word generositatem (nobility, excellence).

5. corridor noun (kawr-i-der, -dawr, kor-)
a gallery or passage connecting parts of a building
Example: The long corridor in the church seemed like it would take forever to get to the end of it.
Note: Alternative words for corridor are hallway, lobby, and passageway.

6. artifact noun (ahr-tuh-fakt)
something made or given shape by man, such as a tool or a work of art, esp. an object of archaeological interest
Example: Artifacts including glass jewelries thought to have been made in the Roman Empire have been found in a very unlikely place -- an ancient Japanese tomb.
Note: Have you, or someone you know of, seen artifacts in a museum? If so, can you describe them? If not, would you like to see some, and why?

7. celebrity noun (suh-leb-ri-tee)
a famous or well-known person.
Example: Lady Gaga, Charlie Sheen and Petra Nemcova were just some of the celebrities who urged fans to give to Japan relief funds for the earthquake victims in 2011.
Note: Can you name some celebrities in your country?

8. discord noun (dis-kawrd)
lack of concord or harmony between persons or things
Example: The Sino-Japanese discord on the Senkaku Islands has somehow damaged bilateral relations between the two countries.
Note: Discord comes from the prefix dis-(apart) + the Latin word cordis (heart) to mean without heart, or in disagreement.

9. physics noun (fiz-iks)
the science that deals with matter, energy, motion, and force
Example: Dr. MichioKaku is a Japanese-American theoretical physicist who is famous for his studies on the physics of time.
Note: A physicist refers to a person engaged in the study of Physics; not to be confused with a physician, who is a person engaged in general medical practice.

10. collective adjective (kuh-lek-tiv)
forming a whole; combined
Example: A government panel in Japan endorsed a proposal to allow for collective self-defense in the nation’s constitution, submitting it to Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda in 2011.
Note: The root word collect comes from the Latin word collectus, which means gather together

Part 2: Exercise 1



Give the word being asked for each number.

■provided ■discord ■generosity ■corridor ■collective
■physics ■artifact ■modernization ■celebrity ■revenue


__________ 1. a famous or well-known person
__________ 2. a gallery or passage connecting parts of a building
__________ 3. state of having a new character or appearance to
__________ 4. on the condition or understanding (that)
__________ 5. lack of concord or harmony between persons or things
__________ 6. forming a whole; combined
__________ 7. the science that deals with matter, energy, motion, and force
__________ 8. the income of a government from taxation, customs, or other sources, appropriated to the payment of the public expenses
__________ 9. readiness or liberality in giving
__________ 10. something made or given shape by man, such as a tool or a work of art, esp. an object of archaeological interest

Part 2: Exercise 2



Choose the correct words to complete the sentences below.


1. Physicists believe that the discovery of the subatomic particle called Higgs boson signaled a likely end to one of the longest, most expensive searches in the history of _________.

(1) Physics
(2) Modernization
(3) Celebrities
(4) Artifacts

2. In July 1953, the Korean War came to an end_________ that the two Koreas (North and South) would respect the agreement on the 38th parallel boundary. Ever since, everyone has hoped that war won’t arise once again between these two countries.

(1) Modernization
(2) Discord
(3) Provided
(4) Activists

3. Google tightened its grip on the UK advertising sector in the second quarter of 2012, with total _________ of $1.198bn (£777m) in the period from April to June from its search business here.

(1) Collective
(2) Revenues
(3) Generosity
(4) Artifacts

4. The International Monetary Fund's (IMF) sympathy budget for developing countries shows its _________ and promises to continue helping needy countries.

(1) Generosity
(2) Revenues
(3) Modernization
(4) Discord

5. President Barack Obama welcomed Japan’s Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda at the west _________ leading to the Office of National Security of the White House this year, as Japan and the United States look to reinvigorate defense ties after a rocky few years.

(1) Physics
(2) Discord
(3) Corridor
(4) Revenues

6. As much as _____________ brings a lot of benefits to the society, it's sad to say that the rich culture of the aborigines of that region is in danger of extinction because of it. Their children’s children won’t be able to witness the beauty of their origin anymore.

(1) Revenues
(2) Modernization
(3) Discord
(4) Generosity

7. Many couples these days are under economic pressure, which puts them in severe marital ______________. Because most conflicts and misunderstandings cannot be resolved overnight, they end up deciding to live separate lives and finally, filing for a divorce.

(1) Provide
(2) Generosity
(3) Artifact
(4) Discord

8. Being a _______________ is not at all a bed of roses. Most of them suffer from invasion of privacy with paparazzi and reporters swarming them everywhere they go. Moreover, since people expect too much from them, some of them succumb to the pressure and live a miserable life.

(1) Celebrity
(2) Collective
(3) Artifact
(4) Modernization

9. ________________ Investment Funds combine the assets of private investors and financial institutions or organizations, creating a larger and expanded portfolio. This kind of fund aims at lowering costs through the combination of pensions and funds from profit-sharing.

(1) Artifact
(2) Revenues
(3) Generosity
(4) Collective

10. Most museums that exhibit ______________ from the past give a form to the history of a land. Keeping the items in their best form, most especially after excavation, can be very costly and sometimes even requires advanced technology.

(1) Artifacts
(2) Collective
(3) Physics
(4) Corridor