17：英検対策1級（Eiken Grade 1）
01: Eiken Grade 1 Vocabularies Lesson 1
Part 1: Vocabulary words
not necessary; not intrinsic or inherent; external or not included within
■Example: Let’s try not to touch those matters that are extrinsic to the topic at hand.
□Note: The opposite of extrinsic is intrinsic.
2. Covert adjective [koh-vert, kuhv-ert]
secret or hidden; disguised; covered; not practiced openly
■Example: We are suspecting that they are having some covert military operations as a response to the terrorists’ kidnapping of foreign nationals.
□Note: Overt is the opposite of covert.
3. Clandestine adjective [klan-des-tin]
kept, done or executed with secrecy; concealed
■Example: CIA agents are well-trained to do clandestine works.
□Note: Have you ever done any clandestine works before?
4. Classified adjective [klas-uh-fahyd]
arranged or distributed according to classes or categories
■Example: All classified airborne diseases are once again being studied to find an absolute cure.
can be accessed by or available to authorized persons only
■Example: They were not given the information that we need because it is considered classified for national security.
□Note: The verb form of the word ‘classified’ is ‘classify’ which means to arrange or organize according to classes.
5. Ulterior adjective [uhl-teer-ee-er]
lying beyond what is seen, declared, evident or revealed, usually kept intentionally concealed for the purpose of deceiving
■Example: Surprisingly, my colleague who doesn’t like me that much offered me a ride to the office. I found out that he actually had an ulterior motive of asking financial help from me.
occurring at a subsequent time or stage
■Example: Everyone is in agreement about the newly proposed policy. Hopefully, there will be no ulterior arguments after the very peaceful talk.
□Note: The word ‘ulterior’ comes from the Latin word ‘ulter’, which means beyond.
6. Surreptitiously adverb [sur-uhp-tish-uhs-lee]
done, obtained or made in a secret or stealth manner
■Example: He was glancing at her surreptitiously because he didn’t want her to notice the special interest he has in her.
□Note: Why do people do things surreptitiously?
7. Equivalent adjective [ih-kwiv-uh-luhnt]
equal in value, meaning, measure, force, effect, significance, etc.
■Example: His sudden silence in the middle of the argument was equivalent to giving up his stand.
□Note: This word comes from the Late Latin word aequival, which means to have equal force.
8. tantamount adjective [tan-tuh-mount]
essentially equal in effect, value or significance to something; same as
■Example: Being unresponsive to the call of the people is tantamount to failure in governance.
□Note: While tantamount means ‘equivalent to’ or ‘same as’, paramount means ‘primary’ or ‘top’.
9. rigorous adjective [rig-er-uhs]
characterized by harshness, strictness or severity
■Example: He is known for his rigorous ways in dealing with his subordinates.
□Note: ‘Rigor’ is the noun form of ‘rigorous’.
10. stringent adjective [strin-juhnt]
imposing strict or severe standards of performance; constricted; constraining; compelling
■Example: Brain functions are at a spectacular level when working under a stringent time limit.
□Note: The opposite of ‘stringent’ is ‘flexible’.
Part2: Exercise 1
Give the word being asked for each number.
_________________ 1. kept, done or executed with secrecy; concealed
_________________ 2. imposing strict or severe standards of performance; constricted; constraining; compelling
_________________ 3. not necessary; not intrinsic or inherent; external or not included within
_________________ 4. done, obtained or made in a secret or stealth manner
_________________ 5. equal in value, meaning, measure, force, effect, significance, etc.
_________________ 6. can be accessed by or available to authorized persons only
_________________ 7. characterized by harshness, strictness or severity
_________________ 8. secret or hidden; disguised; covered; not practiced openly
_________________ 9. lying beyond what is seen, declared, evident or revealed usually kept intentionally concealed for the purpose of deceiving
_________________ 10. essentially equal in effect, value or significance to something; same as
Part2: Exercise 2
Choose the correct words to complete the sentences below.
1. The Kittyhawk P-40, a World War II fighter plane that crash landed in the Sahara Desert in June 1942, was hailed the ‘aviation ___________ of Tutankhamen’s tomb’. It was discovered almost perfectly preserved 70 years after it crashed, just like King Tut’s tomb that was only discovered in 1920.
a. clandestine b. stringent c. extrinsic d. equivalent
2. The illegal transactions between the two high-ranking officials were discovered by the national investigation department through ___________ wiretapping and a sophisticated surveillance system.
a. ulterior b. covert c. tantamount d. classified
3. A more ____________ enforcement of law was called for in response to the incident of the gas explosion that was caused by copper theft. They say there is no need for new legislation. What’s needed is a stricter or more severe implementation of the existing law.
a. rigorous b. surreptitious c. equivalent d. extrinsic
4. Julian Assange, the beleaguered founder of Wikileak, faced extradition for uploading __________ information from so-called whistleblowers on his media website. The sensational exposés almost sparked distrust, even hostility, among some nations.
a. classified b. covert c. tantamount d. stringent
5. Zack Sinclair was sent to a secured psychiatric facility and sentenced to a maximum 3-year imprisonment for stalking Mel Gibson. In the year 2004, he sent multiple letters to the actor and ____________ stalked him as a result of his obsession of the movie ‘The Passion of the Christ’.
a. surreptitiously b. ulterior c. rigorously d. extrinsic
6. The members of the board must work toward achieving guideline quality standards that are more __________ than the present ones. These strict standards are expected to upgrade all existing products of the company.
a. covert b. classified c. stringent d. equivalent
7. The supposedly _________ plot for the assassination of the president was exposed by a spy who connived for its thorough planning. The CIA is now on the move to unleash the big names behind the conspiracy.
a. surreptitious b. clandestine c. tantamount d. rigorous
8. Rewards that provide satisfaction and pleasure after accomplishing a certain task are called ________ motivation. This kind of motivation comes from outside an individual, so despite the fact that the person has little interest in the task, he will still work on it for the anticipated gratification that he will get from it.
a. stringent b. covert c. equivalent d. extrinsic
9. The country that is considered the most powerful country in the world has helped a lot of nations, most especially in the area of national security. Besides the reason of maintaining peace and order, it actually has _________ motive, which is to abuse the riches and resources of those countries.
a. a clandestine b. a stringent c. an ulterior d. a surreptitious
10. Alan Bennett, an author and a playwright, criticized the local council’s plans to close a popular library in North London saying that the loss is ______________ to child abuse. According to him, hindering a child’s access to books can damage a child for life.
a. classified b. extrinsic c. rigorous d. tantamount