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17:英検対策1級(Eiken Grade 1)

11: Eiken Grade 1 Vocabularies Lesson 11

Part 1: Vocabulary words

1. Efficacy noun [ef-i-kuh-see]
capacity for producing an intended result; being effective
■Example: More efficacy studies are needed to confirm that cranberry is better in juice form than in capsules or tablets.
□Note: The word efficacy comes from efficere, which means to work out and accomplish.

2. Longevity noun [lon-jev-i-tee, lawn-]
the great length or duration of an individual life; long life
■Example: because of either their diet or isolation, the Mediterranean island of Sardinia has just improved its reputation for longevity by having the world’s oldest siblings.
□Note: It also means length of service or seniority. For example: The promotions of this company are based on longevity.

3. Mortality noun [mawr-tal-i-tee]
the number of deaths, especially of large numbers, in a specific area or population; death rate
■Example: The Ebola virus is grouped by type as a category A bio terrorism agent by the US Centers for Disease Control because of its high mortality rate.
□Note: What is the mortality rate in your country?

4. Demise noun [dih-mahyz]
death or decease
■Example: The investigators will have had at least three months to thoroughly investigate the President’s demise, since there was information that he was secretly ill.
□Note: In law, demise means to transfer an estate or sovereignty by will, lease, or abdication.

5. Immunity noun [ih-myoo-ni-tee]
the protection or resistance of the body from a disease or illness caused by an infectious agent, such as a bacterium or virus. Immunity may be natural or acquired.
■Example: The ambassador claimed diplomatic immunity when the policeman arrested him for speeding.
□Note: In law, immunity means exemption from obligation, legal duties, penalties, service, duty, liability to taxation, or jurisdiction, which is granted to a special group of people.

6. Remedy noun [rem-i-dee]
something, like medicine or therapy, that cures or relieves pain or a disease; it also means something that corrects an error or fault.
■Example: Her mother knows a very good remedy for toothache.
□Note: Do you know a good remedy for a headache?

7. Transfusion noun [trans-fyoo-zhuhn]
the transfer of blood, plasma, or the like into a blood vessel
■Example: The Department of Health is advising of some ways to minimize the risks involved in blood transfusion like incorrect doses of medication, which can result in death.
□Note: It also means an act of pouring a liquid from one vessel into another.

8. Bout noun [bout]
a period of time spent doing something
■Example: His long bouts of drinking have destroyed his health.
□Note: In sports, a bout means a match.

9. Quarantine noun [kwawr-uhn-teen, kwor-,kwawr-uhn-teen]
a period of strict isolation imposed on patients suffering from a contagious disease to prevent the spread of disease, or to prevent a disease from entering a country
■Example: More than 100 workers were quarantined for about five hours after a chemical alert at the ABC office in California.
□Note: What do you know about the quarantine system of your country?

10. Contingency noun [kuhn-tin-juhn-see]
an event that could possibly happen which must be prepared for; a future emergency
■Example: The contingency plan on the orders of the President is to first of all care for the people affected by the storm.
□Note: Origin: "quality of being contingent, from contingent which means "a chance occurrence" .

Part2: Exercise 1



Give the word being asked for each number.

■efficacy  ■longevity ■bout  ■mortality ■immunity
■transfusion  ■contingency ■quarantine  ■remedy ■demise


____________________1. The number of deaths, especially of large numbers, in a specific area or population; death rate
____________________2. Death or decease
____________________3. Capacity for producing an intended result; being effective
____________________4. The transfer of blood, plasma, or the like into a blood vessel
____________________5. Something, like medicine or therapy, that cures or relieves pain or a disease; it also means something that corrects an error or fault.
____________________6. A period of strict isolation imposed on patients suffering from a contagious disease to prevent the spread of disease, or to prevent a disease from entering a country.
____________________7. The great length or duration of an individual life; long life
____________________8. An event that could possibly happen which must be prepared for; a future emergency
____________________9. A period of time spent doing something
____________________10. the protection or resistance of the body from a disease or illness caused by an infectious agent, such as a bacterium or virus. Immunity may be natural or acquired.

Part2: Exercise 2



Choose the correct words to complete the sentences below.


1. Doctors suggest that the difference in how a person thinks in a certain situation could have a relative impact on the genes which affects their brain. This could change chemicals and change stress levels. This is one of the factors that affects health and _____________.

a. remedy     b. efficacy      c. lively      d. longevity


2. Many scientific reviews and analyses claim that the plant Echinacea has immunological effects; however, the herbal ______________ of Echinacea should not be given to children under 12 years old, the Department of Health has warned parents.

a. remedy     b. efficacy      c. lively      d. longevity


3. The courts have stripped the general of his ___________ from prosecution numerous times, but attempts to make him stand trial for alleged graft and corruption charges fail, with judges usually citing concerns about his health.

a. longevity      b. remedy     c. immunity      d. mortality


4. After the widespread blackout, which left 367,000 households without electricity, the electric company is moving forward with their work and the next procedure will be to ask for a specialist's advice about the cause of the major electric failure and how to _______________ it.

a. Immunity     b. remedy      c. mortality     d. demise


5. Underscoring the scale of problems facing the European manufacturers, the overall job losses on Wednesday was 10,000, the leading European companies announced. Some critics suggested that people should cut their losses and ditch the euro. Its __________ is inevitable.

a. Mortality     b. longevity      c. demise      d. transfusion


6. The total risk of AIDS infection by blood transfusion remains very small when compared to other commonly accepted risks. Nevertheless, an AIDS patient who became infected via a blood ________________ received compensation from the health ministry.

a. mortality      b. longevity      c. demise      d. transfusion


7. Judges scored the twelve-round _________________ 12-11, giving the challenger the win after he lost the first two rounds to the defending champion. The champion lost in defending his title after holding it for 12 years.

a. remedy     b. activity      c. bout      d. contingency


8. The Prime Minister of this country died last Tuesday evening at the age of 49. The details about his death, such as the location and time, are still unknown. The secrecy surrounding his ________________ seems to reflect the equally reserved government of this country.

a. mortality     b. longevity     c. demise      d. transfusion


9. Authorities said that the vaccination and _______________ efforts are taking their effect in controlling the country’s worst-ever foot-and-mouth disease outbreak. Since October, roughly 1.9 million cloven-hoofed animals have been culled.

a. quarantine     b. injection     c. evacuation      d. remedy


10. Meteorologists say that the rains of this month will cause great floods and landslides. Officials say _____________ plans will be carried out in case the typhoon does not pick up the pace over the next two weeks.

a. transfusion      b. mortality      c. contingency      d. action