難易度:上級

17:英検対策1級(Eiken Grade 1)

16: Eiken Grade 1 Vocabularies Lesson 16

Part 1: Vocabulary words

1. Persist verb [per-sist, -zist]
to continue to exist, especially past a usual, expected, or normal time
to go on resolutely or stubbornly in spite of opposition, importunity, or warning
■Example: I have said this before and I will say it again, if you persist in bathing after long hours of dancing you’ll have leg pains every now and then.
□Note: Middle French persister, from Latin persistere, from per- +sistere to take a stand, stand firm; akin to Latin stare to stand.

2. Enhance verb [en-hans, -hahns]
to heighten, to increase, to improve in value, quality, desirability, or attractiveness
■Example: Italian food is seasoned with different tasty herbs to enhance it.
□Note: Similar words are, improve, enrich and better.

3. Invigorate verb [in-vig-uh-reyt]
to give life and energy to, to stimulate
■Example: A lot of people depend on coffee to invigorate them during long hours of work.
□Note: Can you give me examples of ways to invigorate yourself during a class?

4. Fortify verb [fawr-tuh-fahy]
to strengthen and secure
to give physical strength, courage, or endurance to
■Example: We need to fortify our soccer team against the defending winners.
□Note: It comes from the Latin word fortis, which means strong

5. Expedite verb [ek-spi-dahyt]
to accelerate the process or progress of : speed up
■Example: Two years ago a mass grave was found in a rural area in the country; families of the victims wish to expedite the process to claim justice.
□Note: The word expedite was first used during the 15th century.

6. Galvanize verb [gal-vuh-nayhz]
to cause (people) to become so excited or concerned about an issue, idea, etc., that they want to do something about it
■Example: A thirteen-year-old girl with cancer is on Youtube actively sharing her treatments and everything else she’s undergoing. Her videos continue to galvanize people to support children with cancer.
□Note: A technical definition would be to cover (steel or iron) with a layer of zinc to prevent from rusting.

7. Bolster verb [bohl-ster]
to give support to (something)
to make (something) stronger or better
■Example: The news that he got picked for the lead role will definitely bolster his confidence.
□Note: Bolster can also be a noun; it is a long bag of cloth completely filled with soft materials : a long pillow or cushion

8. Sustain verb [suh-steyn]
to provide what is needed for (something or someone) to exist, continue
■Example: It amazes me how breastmilk alone can sustain babies up to 6 months.
□Note: In the field of law, sustain means to decide or state that (something) is proper, legal, or fair.
▪ The judge sustained the motion.
▪ The lawyer's objection was sustained.

9. Facilitate verb [fuh-sil-i-teyt]
to make (something) easier : to help cause (something)
to help (something) run more smoothly and effectively
■Example: Facilitating medical services for elderly people is very important, to provide maximum care.
□Note: The word facilitate was being used by the year 1611.

10. Supplement noun [n. suhp-luh-muhnt]
something that is added to something else in order to make it complete
■Example: When you are pregnant you are given different kinds of supplements, made specifically for pregnant women.
□Note: For the Brits, a supplement is an amount of money that must be paid in addition to the regular price.

Part2: Exercise 1



Give the word being asked for each number.

■Persist  ■Enhance ■Invigorate  ■Fortify ■Expedite
■Galvanize  ■Bolster ■Sustain  ■Facilitate ■Supplement


__________ 1. to go on resolutely or stubbornly in spite of opposition, importunity, or warning
__________ 2. to accelerate the process or progress of : speed up
__________ 3. to cause (people) to become so excited or concerned about an issue, idea, etc., that they want to do something about it
__________ 4. to heighten, to increase, to improve in value, quality, desirability, or attractiveness
__________ 5. to give life and energy to; to stimulate
__________ 6. something that is added to something else in order to make it complete.
__________ 7. to make (something) easier : to help (something) run more smoothly and effectively
__________ 8. to provide what is needed for (something or someone) to exist or continue
__________ 9. to strengthen and secure; to give physical strength, courage, or endurance to
__________ 10. to give support to (something); to make (something) stronger or better

Part2: Exercise 2



Choose the correct words to complete the sentences below.


1. After almost 10 years spent in school and training in medicine, my friend is now a successful doctor. With all the blessings and success, she never stopped sharing what she has to offer. She now has a place where she ___________ children with cancer.

a. supplements      b. facilitates      c.  galvanizes    d. invigorates


2. The more outspoken we are against physical and sexual abuse, the more we can________ support for the abused.

a. facilitate     b. galvanize     c. bolster      d. fortify


3. Many would question the morality of same sex marriages, and being in a country with a strong religious background, I don’t think most people from this country are ready for something like this to be legalized. I, on the other hand, will ____________ in supporting organizations and movements to legalize same sex marriages because I believe that love conquers all.

a. supplement      b.  persist    c. galvanize     d. fortify


4. The filing of the candidacy is finally over. It is not a surprise to see current politicians running for the nth time in next year’s election. We then have to wait for how they will _______ their platforms in order to get those votes in.

a. fortify      b. sustain      c. supplement     d. expedite


5. Pregnancy is such a delicate condition. Though you can never expect everything to go perfectly, it is the parents’ responsibility to take extra care. It is best to take vitamins that are rich in folic and iron, and you will definitely need extra calcium __________ because you need strong bones to support yourself and the baby.

a. supplements    b. fortify     c. galvanizes   d. bolsters


6. You can have your nose lifted, get your hair done or dyed, and fancy yourself with designer bags shoes and clothes. You can scent yourself with the finest perfumes in the world, but remember these will only ________ what you already have physically. Beauty is about perception and if you have an ugly heart nothing can mask it.

a. expedite     b. galvanize     c. invigorate     d. enhance


7. Abandoned families of the victims from the bloodbath massacre five years ago are still seeking for justice. Crying for justice they ask, “Where is the promised due process?” It seems that the government gave them false hope when they said they could ____________ the process. We only see specially treated suspects behind bars, while the families are imprisoned in spirit together with the victims.

a. expedite    b. invigorate    c. supplement      d. enhance


8. When I was still at school, I was immature and had no sense of time and discipline. I always felt that I had to drag myself to school. Now that I have grown and matured, I finally have so much value for time and good health. This is why in the morning, I __________ myself through brief exercises as soon as I wake up. I not only keep myself healthy, but I arrive early for all my responsibilities and appointments.

a. bolster      b. invigorate      c. enhance      d. supplement


9. A couple of days ago, a picture circulated on social media sites. It was a picture parted into three; the first two pictures had parents kissing their dead nine-year-old son goodbye, and the third picture had all the medical staff, nurses and doctors bowing their heads, showing respect and appreciation to the dead boy and his family. I then found out from the caption that the kidney of the dead boy was donated to _________ another patient’s life. The picture left me with a heart-warming feeling.

a. facilitate     b. galvanize      c. sustain      d. enhance


10. A lot of times adolescents will find it hard to adjust, to find their spot in this world, or even to define themselves. At this stage they are prone to depression, feelings of rejection, or even withdrawal from society. It is the most crucial stage in life, wherein the role of a strong family is so important-- a family that never fails to ________ a lost adolescent spirit.

a. bolster      b. invigorate      c. sustain     d. fortify