17：英検対策1級（Eiken Grade 1）
18: Eiken Grade 1 Vocabularies Lesson 18
Part 1: Vocabulary words
to avoid or escape (someone or something) by being quick, skillful, or clever
■Example: The little rascal tried to elude his parents after making a mess in the bedroom.
□Note: It can also mean to fail to be understood or remembered by (someone)
2. Circumvent verb [sur-kuhm-vent, sur-kuhm-vent]
to avoid being stopped by (something, such as a law or rule)
■Example: It’s better to circumvent the restrictions when making a decision regarding this issue.
□Note: Circumvent means to avoid or tryt o avoid fulfilling, answering, or performing duties, questions, or issues.
3. Plague noun [pleyg]
old-fashioned : a large number of harmful or annoying things.
a disease that causes death and that spreads quickly to a large number of people
■Example: A plague brought by skin ailments affected about 90% of the population.
□Note: It can also be a verb meaning to cause constant worry or distress to (someone) — usually used as (be) plagued.
4. Torment noun [v. tawr-ment, tawr-ment;n. tawr-ment]
extreme physical or mental pain
severe mental distress
■Example: The prisoner suffered from three decades of irreparable torment.
□Note: Torment suggests persecution or the repeated inflicting of suffering or annoyance.
5. Confound verb [kon-found]
to surprise and confuse (someone or something)
To confound means to confuse someone, defeat an enemy or foil a plan.
■Example: Confound your friends by giving your approval but then acting the opposite way.
□Note: The word comes from the Old French word confondre, and from the Latin confundere, meaning to mingle or pour together.
6. Stump noun [stuhmp]
a part that remains after something has been broken off, removed, or worn down
■Example: I believe the tree stump goes to around 4 feet below ground level.
□Note: The word stump can also be a verb and is defined as being too difficult for (someone) to answer.
7. Dismiss verb [dis-mis]
to decide not to think about or consider (something or someone)
to send (someone) away : to cause or allow (someone) to leave
■Example: The judge decided to dismiss the case due to lack of evidence.
□Note: In sports to dismiss means to eject (a player or coach) for the remainder of a game.
8. Dissect verb [dih-sekt, dahy-]
to separate into pieces : expose the several parts of (as an animal) for scientific examination
to analyze and interpret minutely <dissect a problem>
■Example: The Marine analyst decided to dissect the baby whale that was found dead on the shore line, to determine the cause of death.
□Note: Dissect is also to make a mathematical, chemical, or grammatical analysis of; to break down into components or essential features; "analyze a specimen", "analyze a sentence", "analyze a chemical compound".
9. Refute verb [ri-fyoot]
to prove that (something) is not true
to prove wrong by argument or evidence: show to be false or erroneous
■Example: I aggressively raised my hand in refute to his allegations.
□Note: The origin of the word refute comes from the Latin word refutare, meaning to check.
10. Rebuff noun [n. ri-buhf, ree-buhf; v.ri-buhf]
to refuse (something, such as an offer or suggestion) in a rude way
■Example: Without batting an eyelash, she decided to rebuff my offer.
□Note: Rebuff can also be a verb and can mean to beat back (an attack); repel.
Part2: Exercise 1
Give the word being asked for each number.
_____________1. to prove that (something) is not true; to prove wrong by argument or evidence: show to be false or erroneous
_____________2. a large number of harmful or annoying things; a disease that causes death and that spreads quickly to a large number of people
_____________3. extreme physical or mental pain; severe mental distress
_____________4. a part that remains after something has been broken off, removed, worn down
_____________5. to surprise and confuse (someone or something); to confound means to confuse someone, defeat an enemy or foil a plan.
_____________6. to separate into pieces : expose the several parts of (as an animal) for scientific examination; to analyze and interpret minutely
_____________7. to avoid or escape (someone or something) by being quick, skillful, or clever
_____________8. to refuse (something, such as an offer or suggestion) in a rude way
_____________9. to avoid being stopped by (something, such as a law or rule)
_____________10. to decide not to think about or consider (something or someone); to send (someone) away to cause or allow (someone) to leave
Part2: Exercise 2
Choose the correct words to complete the sentences below.
1. After months of rumors and speculations that the celebrity couple’s marriage was on the rocks ,the seven year marriage finally ended. However, I believe that they’ve exhausted all efforts in trying to _________ the numerous issues they could not agree upon, hoping to keep the family whole.
a. rebuff b. dissect c. plague d. torment
2. My daughter and I made these melted crayon flowers and it turned out really pretty. However, I forgot to put the candle on a candle holder, and now I have been cleaning up the table. It’s been 30 minutes since I started removing the _______ of that huge multi-colored wax candle, and I’ve only removed less than half of it.
a. refute b. stump c. plague d. circumvent
3. Thank God, you’re awake now! I was in _________while you were in the hospital bed unconscious. I have spoken to your doctors about your condition, and they said you’re almost well!
a. torment b. stump c. refute d. rebuff
4. I found a to-do-list on the internet. It had me laughing while reading it and I thought that it would be fun to do. I found “thing-to-do” number 5 easy and fun to do, and it goes like, “To ____________ people, ask out loud what year it is, and if someone answers, say out loud 'it worked' and then leave.”
a. plague b. confound c. circumvent d. rebuff
5. Holiday season is just around the corner, and for third world countries, it means you have to be extra watchful of thieves on the streets. On the news last night, there were an alarming number of robbery incidents, and most of the time thieves were able to quickly _________ the authorities.
a. torment b. elude c. confound d. circumvent
6. The Bubonic _______ happened in London during the 14th century, and killed an estimated 25 million people. The disease was brought by small rodents and their fleas on board trading ships.
a. elude b. torment c. plague d. stump
7. Neighbors from the other units heard everything from their argument last night. It is said to have lasted for about two hours. It was so loud and clear that you didn't need to eavesdrop. The heated argument was ended by her firm _______.
a. dismissal b. rebuff c. stump d. elude
8. A topic was given to our group by our department head. I have researched about it, and now I would like to ask for your help to research further. I’ll be dividing us all to create sub groups, and together let us __________ the limitations, think outside of the box, and make this a bigger project.
a. circumvent b. dismiss c. plague d. confound
9. I was in the room serving snacks when they were presenting their feasibility study. Everything went smoothly from introduction to literature gathering and the hypothesis. However, when it came to presenting the conclusions, the panel actively _______ the results.
a. plagued b. refuted c. dismissed d. circumvented
10. It was broadcasted that a storm would be coming to the country within the week. However, some schools, especially those who cater to nursery and pre-school students, thought it best to ________ the class.
a. rebuff b. circumvent c. dismiss d. confound