難易度:上級

17:英検対策1級(Eiken Grade 1)

22: Eiken Grade 1 Vocabularies Lesson 22

Part 1: Vocabulary words

1. Abdicate verb [ab-di-keyt]
to relinquish (as sovereign power) formally
to renounce a throne, high office, dignity, or function
■Example: The king needed to step down and to abdicate due to chaos outside the palace.
□Note: Latin abdicatus, past participle of abdicare, from ab- +dicare to proclaim

2. Abscond verb [ab-skond]
to go away or escape from a place secretly
■Example: It was suggested for them to abscond, and get married where no one would disapprove of it.
□Note: Examples of antonyms for the word abdscondare continue; endure; remain.

3. Tamper verb [tam-per]
to change or touch (something) especially in a way that causes damage or harm
■Example: I am positively sure that I shut the doors before we left; somebody then came to tamper with the lock on the doors.
□Note: Would you tamper with something you just bought, and return it pretending it was damaged before purchasing it?

4. Juggle verb [juhg-uhl]
to do (several things) at the same time
■Example: You will have to juggle studies, dancing, and going out with friends today.
□Note: In the field of entertainment it can mean to keep several objects in motion in the air at the same time by repeatedly throwing and catching them.

5. Cajole verb [kuh-johl]
to obtain from someone by gentle persuasion <cajoled money from his parents>
to persuade someone to do something or to give you something by making promises or saying nice things — often + into
■Example: Beware of people from the sales department because they usually cajole people into buying their products.
□Note: The origin of the word cajole comes from the French word cajoler.

6. Defraud verb [dih-frawd]
to deprive of something by deception or fraud
to trick or cheat someone or something in order to get money : to use fraud in order to get money from a person, an organization, etc.
■Example: Their plot included a way to defraud the organization and run away with the money.
□Note: Is it reasonable to defraud someone just so you can put food on the table for your family?

7. Swindle noun [swin-dl]
to take money or property from by fraud or deceit
to take money or property from (someone) by using lies or tricks
■Example: Swindling someone to meet the expectations of your superiors is a crime that needs punishment.
□Note: examples of swindling are:
<a swindle that involved selling a lot of land that really didn't exist>
<identity theft has become one of the most frequent and feared swindles of our time>

8. Dupe noun [doop, dyoop]
one that is easily deceived or cheated
■Example: Don’t be a dupe in terms of buying necessities for your family.
□Note: As a verb the word dupe means to deceive or trick (someone) into believing or doing something

9. Mutter verb [muht-er]
to speak quietly so that it is difficult for other people to hear what you say
to complain in a quiet or indirect way
■Example: I believe that muttering after being told by your parents that you’ve done something wrong is a way of disrespecting them.
□Note: Do you mutter when you don’t get what you want?

10. Stammer verb [stam-er]
to make involuntary stops and repetitions in speaking
■Example: He began to stammer during the presentation, which made me think he is unsure of what he was talking about.
□Note: Here’s an example of developing a stammer:
“I d-don't know what you're talking about!”

Part2: Exercise 1



Give the word being asked for each number.

■Abdicate  ■Abscond ■Tamper   ■Juggle ■Cajole
■Defraud   ■Swindle ■Dupe  ■Mutter ■Stammer


________________1. to obtain from someone by gentle persuasion; to persuade someone to do something or to give you something by making promises or saying nice things
________________2. to change or touch (something) especially in a way that causes damage or harm
________________3. to make involuntary stops and repetitions in speaking
________________4. to deprive of something by deception or fraud; to trick or cheat someone or something in order to get money
________________5. to relinquish (as sovereign power) formally; to renounce a throne, high office, dignity, or function
________________6. one that is easily deceived or cheated
________________7. to speak quietly so that it is difficult for other people to hear what you say; to complain in a quiet or indirect way
________________8. to go away or escape from a place secretly
________________9. to take money or property from by fraud or deceit; to take money or property from (someone) by using lies or tricks
________________10. to do (several things) at the same time

Part2: Exercise 2



Choose the correct words to complete the sentences below.


1. Being a parent requires you to ___________ different responsibilities without having to compromise any of them. This is one of the many reasons why parenthood takes a lot of maturity and a great sense of time management.

a. cajole    b. juggle      c. abdicate     d.abscond


2. The news featured another robbery, which was caught on a CCTV camera. It was hard to distinguish who the thieves were due to the low resolution coverage of the camera. The police decided to spread the video around for public awareness. Luckily, a citizen came forward to identify the suspects. He said one of the thieves tried to _______him into helping with a crime. He quickly declined to cooperate with the act. Now the police have all five criminals behind bars with the help of the witness.

a. dupe     b. stammer      c. mutter      d. cajole


3. I did not assume with the entire organization about one of my co-member’s actions. However, I have come to draw the same conclusion when I overheard him talking to someone on the phone. The conversation seemed like he was trying to assure the person from the other line that he will be able to pay a certain amount on an agreed date. Now, the accusation of him trying to ____________ money from the organization seems to be true, and I think it’s because of the agreement he made with the person he was talking to on the phone.

a. abscond     b. defraud      c. stammer      d. swindle


4. A car accident took place on one of the city’s main roads. Fortunately, there were no fatalities and only one car was damaged. The car had two people in it, the driver and a passenger who was seated in the front seat. They said everything was running smoothly until the engine halted and smoke started coming out of the hood. The next thing they knew was that they were rushing to ___________ from the car because flames started to come out of the hood. It was concluded that it was due to engine failure.

a. dupe    b. defraud      c. abscond     d. mutter


5. Everytime it rains, the whole city is slightly submerged in water. The worst thing is the water level has been consistently rising rain after rain. Now, you hear people complaining and blaming each other for the disaster they are experiencing. In my opinion, people shouldn’t ________ with nature in the first place. Humans should learn to manage their waste, and stop cutting down trees. I suggest we do it now before nature finally gives up on us.

a. cajole     b. tamper      c. abdicate     d. swindle


6. The impromptu speech contest had the most entries from the sophomores. The freshmen had the most promising contestant, and she was even expected to win. However, when she got up on stage, she began __________. The first place was awarded to a senior year student, whom I believe did perfectly well.

a. abdicating     b. stammering      c. swindling     d. muttering


7. My brother turned our mom into a flame blowing dragon when she found out that we were fighting over a computer game and accidentally deleted some of her important files. As Mom was trying to make a point by reprimanding us, I heard my brother answer with a _______. Mom made the point that it is disrespectful to do so, and eventually she decided to ground us for the weekend.

a. mutter     b. abdicate      c. juggle     d. defraud


8. I can never _________ someone into getting something that I want. It just feels wrong. And as my father always tells me, “You’ve got to work hard consistently everyday to get what you want and need,” and that the end always justifies the means.

a. defraud    b. cajole     c. juggle      d. swindle


9. In a land where poverty is prominent, most people will ___________ their way to survive. No matter how sad and morally wrong it may be, unfortunately it does happen. This is one of the many reasons to frown upon this society, and we should not depend only on the government to help us; we too should do our share to eradicate poverty.

a. swindle     b. juggle     c. mutter      d. stammer


10. After decades of suffering from one man’s dictatorship, the people finally were awakened. They gathered all their strength and fought back and forced their leader to ___________. This only shows that the power has always been with the people.

a. abdicate     b. stammer      c. abscond     d. mutter