17：英検対策1級（Eiken Grade 1）
03: Eiken Grade 1 Vocabularies Lesson 3
Part 1: Vocabulary words
severe, strict or stern in manner, disposition or appearance; serious or grave
■Example: Military men are overly disciplined because they developed through the austere trainings and policies of the military academy.
sternly simple or plain
■Example: It was an austere design but still appealing.
□Note: Do you think you can live an extremely austere lifestyle?
2. Caustic adjective [kaw-stik]
severely critical or derisive or sardonic; stinging or biting, bitter
■Example: The known activist gave a caustic remark against the prime minister.
□Note: The word ‘caustic’ also means capable of burning or destroying living tissue.
3. Scarce adjective [skairs]
inadequate to meet or satisfy a need, a demand or a requirement
■Example: Rice was scarce during the last World War.
rarely met or encountered; hard to find
■Example: He purchased that very scarce book for a thousand yen.
□Note: The opposite of scarce is abundant.
4. Subtle adjective [suht-l]
refined or delicate in meaning or intent; not immediately noticeable or understandable
■Example: The host of the longest-running talk show failed to ask more subtle questions, which infuriated the controversial politician.
□Note: The opposite of subtle is harsh.
5. Meager adjective [mee-ger]
deficient in quantity or quality, fullness, richness, vigor or extent; scanty
■Example: His first attempt at politics was a huge failure because he started off with meager funding.
□Note: Meager can also be spelled as ‘meagre’.
6. sophisticated adjective [suh-fis-ti-key-tid]
having refined tastes or habits; having acquired worldly knowledge that was brought about by education, experience, etc.
■Example: The grand performance of the group was highly-applauded by their sophisticated audience.
complex or intricate
■Example: They have a sophisticated surveillance system in every hall of the hotel.
□Note: This word comes from the Medieval Latin word ‘sophisticatus’, the past participle of ‘sophisticare’, which means to tamper with, disguise or trick with words.
7. sublime adjective [suh-blahym]
majestic; regarded with nobility; impressive; supreme; veneration or inspiring awe
■Example: Of all the heroes of the land, his contribution to his countrymen was considered sublime.
□Note: It comes from the Latin word ‘sublimare’, which means to raise, a derivative of ‘sublimis’.
8. exquisite adjective [ik-skwiz-it]
exceeding normal, usual, or reasonable beauty, charm or appeal; astonishingly admirable
■Example: It is indeed an exquisite vase with some gold linings and red and green gem embellishments.
□Note: The stress in its pronunciation is now on the second syllable. The stress used to be on the first syllable.
9. Susceptible adjective [suh-sep-tuh-buhl]
likely to be affected emotionally or with a disease, infection or condition; easily influenced; sensitive; especially subject to some influence
■Example: Infants are highly susceptible to different kinds of diseases.
□Note: It comes from the Late Latin word ‘susceptibilis, from the Latin ‘susceptus’, which is the past participle of suscipere, meaning ‘to receive’.
10. Vulnerable adjective [vuhl-ner-uh-buhl]
susceptible to being hurt, injured or wounded, both physically and emotionally; prone to attack; likely to succumb to persuasion or temptation
■Example: Too much stress at work makes employees vulnerable to heart disease.
Part2: Exercise 1
Give the word being asked for each number.
__________ 1. having refined tastes or habits; having acquired worldly knowledge that was brought about by compelling
__________ 2. exceeding a normal, usual, or reasonable beauty, charm or appeal; astonishingly admirable
__________ 3. refined or delicate in meaning or intent; not immediately noticeable or understandable
__________ 4. majestic; regarded with nobility; impressive; supreme; veneration or inspiring awe
__________ 5. inadequate to meet or satisfy a need, a demand or a requirement
__________ 6. susceptible to being hurt, injured or wounded, both physical and emotional; prone to attack; likely to succumb to persuasion or temptation
__________ 7. severely critical or derisive or sardonic; stinging or biting, bitter
__________ 8. likely to be affected emotionally or with a disease, infection or condition; easily influenced; sensitive; especially subject to some influence
__________ 9. severe, strict or stern in manner, disposition or appearance; serious or grave
__________ 10. deficient in quantity or quality, fullness, richness, vigor or extent; scanty
Part2: Exercise 2
Choose the correct words to complete the sentences below.
1. It is one of the most advanced and most expensive schools in the country. They offer ________, modern facilities for teaching, learning and research, even cutting-edge equipment in their experimental laboratories.
a. sophisticated b. caustic c. subtle d. meagre
2. Doctors from four U.S. cities reported that homosexuals with AIDS are also ____________ to a rare form of fast-growing cancer that attacks the bone marrow, brain, and abdomen. Their weak immune system makes them easily affected by this so-called non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
a. sublime b. exquisite c. susceptible d. austere
3. That episode of the phenomenal sitcom was deceptively __________. It appears delicate on the surface but it actually contains disguised aggression. That’s precisely the reason why it has continuously been on watch by the censorship group.
a. vulnerable b. subtle c. sophisticated d. scarce
4. Grand Villa L’Imperiale Picasso is certainly a/an ____________ house for it has almost three acres outside the existing buildings and one-half the remaining land has been made into a stunning garden with views of the countryside as the landscape. Its beauty is just astoundingly admirable.
a. exquisite b. caustic c. meagre d. sublime
5. Being a comedian and an activist at the same time, he expressed his contempt for the leader’s foolish decision through ____________ humor, which put his show under close watch of the government.
a. scarce b. susceptible c. caustic d. subtle
6. Miyamoto Musashi was a swordsman in the Edo period. He devised what is called ‘Nitouryo’, the two-sword style. He not only wrote about the techniques of the sword but also about the spirit of a swordsman as well. His contribution to Japanese history is considered _____________.
a. exquisite b. sophisticated c. sublime d. vulnerable
7. Lack of power, both socially and economically, makes young people ____________ to exploitation with the absence of strong support at home or in their community. This is why the social welfare group of their town is increasing families’ awareness on this to empower their youths.
a. vulnerable b. fortified c. exhilarated d. dependable
8. Please make securing a water supply your top priority this year. Water is becoming increasingly _________, such that the schedule of water supply, most especially in rural areas, is becoming more and more infrequent each day.
a. subtle b. austere c. sublime d. scarce
9. The main provider for impoverished families doesn’t earn enough for their daily living. With such a/an ___________ budget, they can barely eat three times a day, which leads to the children being under nourished.
a. sophisticated b. susceptible c. meagre d. exquisite
10. The earliest practitioners of asceticism lived exceptionally __________ lifestyles, renouncing sensual pleasures and the accumulation of material wealth—a kind of life that is impossible to be lived by people of the 21st century.
a. subtle b. austere c. caustic d. vulnerable