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17:英検対策1級(Eiken Grade 1)

31: Eiken Grade 1 Vocabularies Lesson 31

Part 1: Vocabulary words

1. Proponent noun [pruh-poh-nuhnt]
one who puts forward a proposition or an advocacy; one who supports a cause
■Example: He was known for being a great and ardent proponent of communism.
□Note: It comes from the Latin word ‘proponere’, which means ‘to propose’.

2. Advocate noun [ad-vuh-kit, -keyt]
someone who speaks or writes for a cause or in support or defense of someone or something
■Example: He has proven himself to be an advocate of women's power.
□Note: Do you have any advocacies?

3. Recipient noun [ri-sip-ee-uhnt] receiver; a person or thing that receives something
■Example: WWF is the recipient of the money that was raised by various international artists who collaborated for that concert for a cause.
□Note: Do you know anyone in Japan who has been a recipient of the Nobel Prize?

4. Pundit noun [puhn-dit]
an expert, a critic or a learned person
■Example: I learned the philosophy of Buddha through a Buddhist pundit.
□Note: It comes from a Sanskrit word ‘pandita’, which means a ‘learned man’.

5. Descendant noun [dih-sen-duhnt]
a person, animal or plant that descended from a specific group or individual
■Example: Their town is now inhabited by the descendants of Asian settlers who arrived there just 300 years ago.
□Note: The opposite of ‘descendant’ is ‘ancestor’.

6. Prosecutor noun [pros-i-kyoo-ter]
the person that prosecutes or the one who conducts legal actions or proceedings
■Example: Three men were indicted by the Federal prosecutors for their alleged terrorist plot.
□Note: It comes from the Latin word ‘prōsecūtor’, which means ‘pursuer’.

7. Consort noun [kon-sawrt]
spouse of a monarch; a partner or associate; companion; partnership or association
■Example: The sight of Prince William, standing beside his consort, just looks exquisitely charming.
□Note: This word can also be used as a verb as in ‘to keep company’ or ‘to be in agreement’ as in “As a member of the elite, he is a known to consort with people who are below the poverty line.”

8. Culprit noun [kuhl-prit]
a person who was charged with a crime or an offense
■Example: The head of the police force gave a statement that they will hunt down the culprits who terrorized the town last weekend.
□Note: Think of a word that you can easily associate with the word ‘culprit’.

9. Fugitive noun [fyoo-ji-tiv]
a person who runs away or flees from the law
■Example: They have been chasing the fugitive for a month now, but he has proven himself to be unbelievably elusive.
□Note: It comes from the Latin word ‘fugitivus,’ which means “fleeing away”, and from ‘fugere,’which means “to take flight”.

10. adherent noun [ad-heer-uhnt]
a supporter or a person who upholds a cause or a leader
■Example: The devotees of that religion are adherent to their teachings and strictly follow them.
□Note: It comes from the Latin word ‘adhærentem’, the present participle of ‘adhærere’, which means “to stick”.

Part2: Exercise 1



Give the word being asked for each number.

■proponent  ■advocate ■recipient  ■pundit ■descendant
■prosecutor  ■consort ■culprit  ■fugitive ■adherent


__________ 1.the person that prosecutes or the one who conducts legal actions or proceedings
__________ 2.someone who speaks or writes for a cause or in support or defense of someone or something
__________ 3.a supporter or a person who upholds a cause or a leader
__________ 4.one who puts forward a proposition or an advocacy; one who supports a cause
__________ 5.spouse of a monarch; a partner or associate; companion; partnership or association
__________ 6.a person, animal or plant that descended from a specific group or individual
__________ 7.an expert, a critic or a learned person
__________ 8.a person who runs away or flees from the law
__________ 9.receiver; a person or thing that receives something
__________ 10.a person who was charged with a crime or an offense

Part2: Exercise 2



Choose the correct words to complete the sentences below.


1. After the brutal attack on Soochanashree Rabindra Nath Nayak, a prominent activist of the state, the police force chased down the ___________ and they were able to successfully arrest him.

a. culprit      b. pundit      c. prosecutor      d. recipient


2. The honorific title ‘Sayyid’ given to men signifies that males are already accepted as a/an _____________ of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his grandsons.

a. descendant      b. advocate      c. consort      d. adherent


3. Jimmy Carter, the 39th president of the United States, was the ____________ of the Nobel Peace Prize in the year 2002 for his decades of relentless efforts to find peaceful solutions to conflicts worldwide, advance democracy and human rights, and promote social and economic development.

a. recipient    b. descendant     c. fugitive     d. adherent


4. The ______________ of the Constructivist Learning Theory, John Dewey and Jean Piaget, suggest that learnings are constructed from prior knowledge, which is called ‘schema’.

a. prosecutors     b. culprits    c. proponents    d.recipients


5. Paul Krugman, who received a Nobel Prize in Economics, is one of the many __________ who are renowned for having serious academic and scholarly experience in their field.

a. culprits     b. fugitives      c. proponents      d. pundits


6. It has been 32 years since she jumped a prison’s barbed wire fence. Marie Walsh kept her life as a _______________ a secret even to her own family until her secret was divulged right in front of her daughter’s eyes when federal agents arrived at her house and arrested her.

a. consort      b. proponent      c. fugitive      d. recipient


7. The young ____________ has already prepared his questions for his direct examination of the witness, as well as the evidence that they will present in the courtroom that will substantiate the witness’ testimony.

a. recipient      b. prosecutor      c. pundit      d. advocate


8. There were speculations that he deceived the citizens of the United States and ____________ with the enemies of civilization through his continued recognition of Soviet Russia.

a. consorted     b. adhered      c. prosecuted      d. advocated


9. Environmental health _____________ develop and manage campaigns for environmental and health awareness, identify potential threats to public health, and provide protection for the people’s well-being.

a. descendants     b. consorts     c. advocates     d. prosecutors


10. In every cult, there is often a self-appointed leader who stimulates devotion among his ___________ followers through deception, coercive persuasion, thought reform and undue influence.

a. adherent      b. recipient     c. advocate     d. descendant