難易度:上級

17:英検対策1級(Eiken Grade 1)

36: Eiken Grade 1 Vocabularies Lesson 36

Part 1: Vocabulary words

1. precedent noun [pres-i-duhnt]
an earlier action/event that could be used as an example/guide in similar situations in the future
■Example: The online game that he’s playing has a database that contains precedents for technical issues, which makes troubleshooting easier and quicker.
□Note: Do you prefer fixing technical issues by yourself with the aid of the precedents found on a website or do you prefer talking to a technical specialist to have your issues resolved?

2. prelude noun [prel-yood, preyl-, prey-lood, pree-]
an earlier, less developed action/event that leads to something else
■Example: Vomiting, high-fever, rashes, and joint pains are a prelude to dengue fever.
□Note: mid-16th century: from French prélude, from medieval Latin praeludium, from Latin praeludere: 'play beforehand', from prae: 'before' + ludere 'to play'

3. harbinger noun [hahr-bin-jer]
a person or thing that shows what is coming, especially something bad
■Example: A cool breeze is a harbinger of the Christmas season in the Philippines.
□Note: usually + of

4. philanthropy noun [fi-lan-thruh-pee]
a practice of providing help to the poor esp. by giving them money
■Example: Politicians seem to equate philanthropy with their political campaigns.
□Note: Do you know anyone in your country that’s famous for philanthropy?

5. camaraderie noun [kah-muh-rah-duh-ree, -rad-uh-, kam-uh-]
mutual trust and friendship among the people in a group
■Example: Lack of camaraderie may force an employee to quit his/her job despite having a high salary.
□Note: mid-19th century: from French, from camarade 'comrade'

6. phase noun [feyz]
a period/stage in a process or a part of a series connected to actions/events
■Example: They claim that their bottled water goes through 7 distillation phases.
□Note: What’s the most difficult phase in your life that you’re proud to have surpassed?

7. facet noun [ fas-it]
a part/element/aspect of something with many parts
■Example: Software designing is one of the facets of Information Technology.
□Note: Which facet of your country’s culture are you most proud of?

8. facade noun [fuh-sahd, fa-]
a way of appearing/behaving that intends people to have a false idea of something.
■Example: Online scammers now use legit bank names as a façade for their clients to update their account information.
□Note: Are you able to judge a person’s sincerity behind their polite façade?

9. incentive noun [in-sen-tiv]
something given to encourage/motivate
something to encourage someone to do something or work harder
■Example: Their company decided to provide cash incentives to employees with perfect attendance.
□Note: Do you think money is the best incentive to encourage demotivated employees?

10. morale noun [muh-ral]
feelings of hope, confidence, and enthusiasm of a person/group
■Example: After a series of failed interviews, his morale dropped and he gave up looking for a job.
□Note: What would you do to boost your friend’s morale if he/she gave up looking for a job after being rejected several times?

Part2: Exercise 1



Give the word being asked for each number.

■harbinger ■incentive ■philanthropy ■camaraderie ■facet
■precedent ■facade ■prelude ■phase ■morale


__________ 1. a person or thing that shows what is coming, especially something bad
__________ 2. an earlier action/event that could be used as an example/guide in similar situations in the future
__________ 3. a practice of providing help to the poor esp. by giving them money
__________ 4. an earlier, less developed action/event that leads to something else
__________ 5. feelings of hope, confidence, and enthusiasm of a person/group
__________ 6. mutual trust and friendship among the people in a group
__________ 7. a period/stage in a process or a part of a series of connected actions/events
__________ 8. something given to encourage/motivate someone to do something or work harder
__________ 9. a part/element/aspect of something with many parts
__________ 10. a way of appearing/behaving that intends people to have a false idea of something

Part2: Exercise 2



Choose the correct words to complete the sentences below.


1. He fought all his insecurities at work by striving so hard to be at least equal with his colleagues. At last, he was able to boost his ________ when he finally got the promotion he had been waiting for.

a. camaraderie      b. morale      c. phase      d. prelude


2. In the “Truman Show” the protagonist fell for the _________ that everything around him was perfect, only to find that everything was just an act because he was in a reality TV show. It was like waking up from such a wonderful dream.

a. facade      b. precedent     c. incentive     d. harbinger


3. I find his calmness and patience to be two of the appealing __________ of his character. However, there’s still more to him than those conspicuous characteristics. Perhaps, people should look deeper into him to make a good judgment of his personality.

a. facets     b. phases     c. incentives      d. camaraderie


4. On top of their commissions, top agents who exceeded their quotas were given travel __________ as well. It absolutely motivated the agents to be more aggressive in selling their products; some of them even worked extra hours.

a. phases      b. facets      c. morale     d. incentives


5. “It’s just a _________,” her mom said. “This too, shall pass.” Silently, he hoped that this chapter in his life would pass quickly so that he wouldn’t have to endure all the difficulties and pain that went with it.

a. philanthropy     b. phase     c. facet     d. morale


6. Drinking alcoholic beverages is more than just getting drunk or an outlet to release stress; it also enhances the________ among the people drinking together as a group. This is precisely the reason why there’s a culture of drinking, especially on Friday nights, among co-workers.

a. camaraderie     b. harbinger     c. philanthropy      d. facet


7. Linda’s boss thought that her resignation would end the issues between them; however, it is just a ___________ to a harassment case that Linda will file against her. Her boss is now terrified in anticipating what will happen next once the case proceeds.

a. prelude     b. facet     c. precedent     d. phase


8. Some people think that he’s just trying to mask his bad reputation with__________. Whether it’s true or not, he’s making a difference by helping the needy and the others who disapprove of his actions aren’t.

a. harbinger     b. morale      c. philanthropy     d. precedent


9. Love gurus are unreliable because even if they may have heard of a particular love problem before, relationships are still unique. There are no ____________ since every relationship has its own formula.

a. precedents    b.  camaraderie    c. incentives      d. facets


10. Some people believe a pig in one’s dream is a ________ of good luck. However, some people say that this is just a superstitious belief that has no substantial basis at all.

a. philanthropy     b. facade     c.  incentive    d. harbinger