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17:英検対策1級(Eiken Grade 1)

04: Eiken Grade 1 Vocabularies Lesson 4

Part 1: Vocabulary words

1. Impervious adjective [im-pur-vee-uhs]
incapable of penetration or passage, of being injured or impaired, of being affected, influenced or persuaded
■Example: He has always been optimistic. His mind is impervious to negative thoughts.
□Note: This word comes from the Latin word ‘impervius’, which means ‘that cannot be passed through’.

2. Impending adjective [im-pen-ding]
imminent; about to occur; to threaten to happen
■Example: Everyone is watchful for any impending tsunami.
□Note: Pending and impending are two different words. While ‘impending’ means ‘about to happen’, ‘pending’ means ‘remaining undecided’ or ‘awaiting decision’ or ‘unfinished’.

3. Imminent adjective [im-uh-nuhnt]
about to occur any moment
■Example: Lack of communication and irreconcilable differences are the main reasons for their imminent separation.
□Note: ‘Imminent’ means about to happen and ‘immanent’ means inherent or pervading the material world.

4. Frugal adjective [froo-guhl]
prudently saving; not wasteful; practicing economy in spending money or use of materials
■Example: He earns a lot, but he can’t save up money. He needs to be a bit more frugal.
□Note: Economical, thrifty and frugal are synonymous to each other although they have little differences. The word ‘economical’ implies a prudent planning of resources to avoid unnecessary wastes or expenses. Thrifty is a stronger word though because it adds to the idea of industry and successful management. Frugal, on the other hand emphasizes saving, sometimes excessively saving.

5. Thrifty adjective [thrif-tee]
having wise economical management; prosperous or successful; vigorously growing
■Example: She has always been a thrifty shopper. She makes sure she always gets a good deal.

6. Adamant adjective [ad-uh-muhnt]
invulnerable to pleas, appeals, reasons, or urgings
■Example: They have long been persuading him to run for office, but as adamant as he is, he was never swayed.
□Note : Some synonymous words for ‘adamant’ are uncompromising, rigid and inflexible.

7. Obstinate adjective [ob-stuh-nit]
firmly or inflexibly adhering to one’s purpose, attitude, opinion, etc.; characterized by difficulty in managing or controlling; not easily controlled
■Example: He’s obstinate against all rational arguments.
□Note: The difference between ‘obstinate’ and ‘stubborn’ is that ‘obstinate’ implies unreasonable rigidity while ‘stubborn’ pertains to innate unyieldingness.

8. Stubborn adjective [stuhb-ern]
unreasonably unyielding; resolutely determined; resistant to any treatment or effort that made the person difficult to treat or deal with; refusing to comply; refusing to obey
■Example: Adolescents undergo a certain period wherein they are uncertain of their identity, which makes them stubborn most of the time, defying all rules.
□Note: Opposite words are irresolute and tractable.

9. Candid adjective [kan-did]
Impartial; straightforward; sincere and open without reservation
■Example: There was no candid conversation that took place between the two of them.
□Note: ‘Candid’ comes from the Latin word ‘candidum’, which means white, pure, sincere, honest and upright.

10. Meekly adjective [meek-lee]
in a humble, submissive, compliant or patient manner
■Example: He meekly conceded and approached the opponent as he accepted defeat.
□Note: What have you meekly done in your entire life?

Part2: Exercise 1



Give the word being asked for each number.

■impervious  ■impending ■imminent  ■frugal ■thrifty
■adamant  ■obstinate ■stubborn  ■candid ■meekly


__________ 1. unreasonably unyielding; resolutely determined; resistant to any treatment or effort that made the person difficult to treat or deal with; refusing to comply; refusing to obey
__________ 2. firmly or inflexibly adhering to one’s purpose, attitude, opinion, etc.; characterized by difficulty in managing or controlling; not easily controlled
__________ 3. prudently saving; not wasteful; practicing economy in spending money or use of materials
__________ 4. invulnerable to pleas, appeals, reasons, or urgings
__________ 5. in a humble, submissive, compliant or patient manner
__________ 6. incapable of penetration or passage, of being injured or impaired, of being affected, influenced or persuaded
__________ 7. imminent; about to occur; to threaten to happen
__________ 8. impartial; straightforward; sincere and open without reservation
__________ 9. about to occur any moment
__________ 10. having wise economical management; prosperous or successful; vigorously growing

Part2: Exercise 2



Choose the correct words to complete the sentences below.


1. There’s no room for ___________ and single-minded officials in the cabinet. They must learn how to open up their minds to accept fresh ideas and comply with the new system for progress to be possible.

a. frugal     b. stubborn      c. impending      d. candid


2. All countries should be wiser and more ____________ in their expenditures, most especially now that the world is suffering from a global crisis. However, some analysts say that this is actually the right time to spend more and invest to keep the economy active.

a. obstinate      b. adamant     c. thrifty      d. impervious


3. After years of fighting for their absolute freedom, they finally won their independence through the heroes of their time, as the military force of the conquerors was ___________ pulled out. However, the nation is still in shock and may not be able to recover easily.

a. imminently      b. frugally      c. meekly     d. stubbornly


4. He, even though a famous actor, has lived a __________ life all his life. He neither asked for anything more nor desired for something better. He made sure to limit all his expenditures and kept things as austere as possible, which impressed his fans even more.

a. frugal     b. impending      c. impervious      d. adamant


5. Her ___________ remark opened a can of worms. Though some people appreciate her courage for being the only one to be upfront about the issue, a lot also criticized her for being too aggressive and are afraid of its adverse effects.

a. candid      b. frugal      c. obstinate      d. meek


6. This trailblazing battle tank was constructed to be almost _____________ to the rocket-propelled grenade. They were especially made to withstand this type of weapon, which is the weapon of choice for the enemy.

a. imminent      b. impervious     c. stubborn      d. adamant


7. Israel’s prime minister and defense minister are planning to attack Iran’s nuclear sites. A war between Israel and Iran could be ____________ even though it might break apart the solid ties between Israel and the United States. This warfare is expected to take place at any moment.

a. candid     b. thrifty      c. imminent     d. frugal


8. The activist leader has been ____________ about the new bill that the senate is trying to pass. He accepts no reason and rejects any compromise. He refuses to see things in a different light and perspective.

a. impending      b. impervious      c. meekly     d. adamant


9. Human beings have different ways of reacting to the threat of ____________ disaster. Usually, we undergo extreme stress and anxiety anticipating a disaster that is about to happen, which may actually never happen.

a. impending      b. obstinate      c. candid      d. frugal


10. His ___________ resistance came to an end when the court finally intervened and sent him a subpoena. He chose not to struggle any longer because a lawful sanction could be expected if he did so.

a. thrifty      b. impervious      c. obstinate      d. impending