難易度:上級

17:英検対策1級(Eiken Grade 1)

44: Eiken Grade 1 Vocabularies Lesson 44

Part 1: Vocabulary words

1. Decadence noun [dek-uh-duhns, dih-keyd-ns]
the process of deterioration or declining into an inferior condition, especially in moral and mental qualities
■Example: They discussed the moral decadence that the country has experienced based on the cocaine and the other lies that people were being told.
□Note: from French decadentia which means decay

2. Derision noun [dih-rizh-uhn]
contemptuous laughter; mockery
■Example: He watched the World Cup with awe and derision as the French national soccer team, boasting a roster of star players, imploded on and off the field.
□Note: How do you hold your derision on someone or something?

3. Disguise verb [dis-gahyz, dih-skahyz]
to conceal or hide the truth of someone’s identity by changing the appearance or manner; misrepresent
■Example: The criminal was described as a black man who was around 40-years old, and about 5ft 4in tall with grey hair and a beard, which he may have shaved off to disguise his appearance.
□Note: Synonyms: cloak, mask, hide, dissemble

4. Conjecture noun [kuhn-jek-cher]
a speculation; expression of an opinion or theory based on incomplete proof or evidence
■Example: The judge said that the major mobile company's claim that the other company’s alleged patent infringement had harmed their standing in the smartphone market was a wild conjecture.
□Note: Antonyms: fact, proof, reality

5. Fallacy noun [fal-uh-see]
a false or wrong belief, a statement made from an invalid inference
■Example: The ghost stories my brother told me when I was a young boy were all fallacies.
□Note: Was Pluto being the ninth planet proven to be a fallacy?

6. Decree noun [dih-kree]
an order from authority having the force of law
■Example: The president issued a decree ordering all unofficial armed groups and rebels to disband.
□Note: In law, decree is the judgment of a court of equity, admiralty, probate, or divorce.

7. Ordinance noun [awr-dn-uhns]
a decree, an authoritative rule
■Example: The ordinances are restricting building developments, making them safer and stronger.
□Note: Origin: from Latin ordināre, which means to set in order

8. Precept noun [pree-sept]
principle or teaching, commandment given as a rule or principle for action
■Example: We need to remember the precept that social philosophers and religious texts have long praised: never do to others what you don’t want have done to yourself.
□Note: In law, it means a warrant.

9. Elimination noun [ih-lim-uh-ney-shuhn]
the act of eliminating, removing or getting rid of something
■Example: This year is the first time that group round-robin elimination was adopted in the Olympics. Many athletes suffered from it.
□Note: Elimination also means the process of our body in discharging waste matter.

10. Exorcism noun [ek-sawr-siz-uhm, -ser-]
the practice of exorcising or freeing evil spirits
■Example: Police in Thailand reported that a 4-year-old child has died of suffocation after six of her family members piled on top of her in a suspected exorcism ritual to drive away evil spirits.
□Note: Do you believe in exorcism?

Part2: Exercise 1



Give the word being asked for each number.

■decadence   ■derision ■disguise  ■conjecture ■fallacy
■decree  ■ordinance ■precept  ■elimination ■exorcism


____________________1. contemptuous laughter; mockery
____________________2. a false or wrong belief, a statement made from an invalid inference
____________________3. an order from authority having the force of law
____________________4. the practice of exorcising or freeing evil spirits
____________________5. to conceal or hide the truth of someone’s identity by changing the appearance or manner; misrepresent
____________________6. the process of deterioration or declining into an inferior condition, especially in moral and mental qualities
____________________7. the act of eliminating, removing or getting rid of something
____________________8. commandment given as a rule or principle for action
____________________9. a decree, an authoritative rule
____________________10. a speculation; expression of an opinion or theory based on incomplete proof or evidence

Part2: Exercise 2



Choose the correct words to complete the sentences below.


1. The new director of The Venice Film Festival said that one of the films is all about the ________________ of morals in Venice. The director pledged to revive the culture of the industry, which provides quality and superb films.

a. fallacy     b. decree     c. decadence      d. precept


2. The government told the employees to be more patient. One of the pledges the government fulfilled was to increase the minimum wage; however, this increase was met with ________________ from many employees and union members. According to them, it would only add up to few extra dollars a month after tax.

a. decadence    b. derision      c. decree     d. fallacy


3. According to reports, two gunmen ________________ in police uniforms entered the town at about 3 p.m. The two gun men killed three civilian people. One of the attackers was killed by the local police. The two others were under warrant of arrest.

a. genuinely     b. disguised      c. originally     d. truthfully


4. The five _________________ of Buddhism are: do not kill, steal, lie, do not commit sexual misconduct, and avoid intoxicants. For a person to be a Buddhist, he is encouraged to vow to refrain oneself from these negative actions.

a. misgivings     b. precepts     c.  decrees    d. derisions


5. The participants in the Olympic badminton tournament get at least three games; in that case, a single-elimination tournament and double-elimination tournament would have resulted in some teams being out of the game. These stages are made to let the best teams rise to the top fairly; that means giving them a number of games or chances before _________________.

a. ordinance     b. conjecture      c. fallacy      d. elimination


6. Many researchers are studying the life of dinosaurs. Some researchers studied the fossil remains of two Sinocalliopteryx dinosaurs and they discovered that dinosaurs had been feasting on primitive birds. The lead researcher believed that in the future what we know about the life of the dinosaurs will not be just __________________ from having good quality fossils.

a. ordinance     b. conjecture    c. fallacy     d. elimination


7. Survey result show that more than one in ten Americans has seen an __________________. That means a huge number of American people believe in the existence of demons and their demonic activities. In the continent, Father Gary Thomas is known to be one of the strongest priests who can drive evil spirits away.

a. elimination    b. exorcism     c. exercising     d. ordinance


8. The woman accused the man of trying to steal her bag but the CCTV video given by the restaurant’s manager proves it to be a ________________. The woman apologized to the man, but the man was wrathful for the trouble and shame it caused.

a. decadence      b. derision      c. decree      d. fallacy


9. Last year, the President issued a ____________________ ordering the privatization of hundreds of state firms and transportation systems in an apparent effort to attract investments. By this year, a boost in foreign investments was recorded.

a. decadence     b. derision      c. decree      d. conjecture


10. The ________________ protected the politician from having to face the graft charges. However, it was nullified and he was no longer shielded by it. He is now facing two different charges of graft and corruption. The public are very satisfied. The public is hoping for him to be in jail soon.

a. ordinance     b. conjecture     c. forces      d. authorities