難易度:上級

17:英検対策1級(Eiken Grade 1)

45: Eiken Grade 1 Vocabularies Lesson 45

Part 1: Vocabulary words

1. Transgression noun [trans-gresh-uhn, tranz-]
a violation of a law, command or duty
■Example: The spokesman regarded the statements of the Vice President as unacceptable. According to him, the statements are a clear transgression of the agreement it made with the people.
□Note: In science, transgression means a relative rise in sea level resulting in the deposition of marine strata over terrestrial strata.

2. Infringement noun [in-frinj-muhnt]
a breach; a violation of a law, regulation, right or obligation, or agreement
■Example: The two major mobile companies accused each other of intellectual property infringement.
□Note: What is the punishment of your country’s law for copyright infringement?

3. Disparity noun [dih-spar-i-tee]
having no similarity or equality, as in age, rank, degree etc.; inequality
■Example: According to a research study, Guatemala is the country with the biggest disparity. The gap between the rich and the poor is widening.
□Note: Would you consider marrying someone even if you have a huge disparity in age?

4. Dissension noun [dih-sen-shuhn]
strong disagreement; difference of opinion, especially among those expected to cooperate
■Example: Dissension against the new subscription policy is growing; some music service companies are also openly opposing the new policy.

5. Discrepancy noun [dih-skrep-uhn-see]
the condition of being different or inconsistent, as between facts and claims
■Example: The CEO of the company tried hard to explain the discrepancy between the weak and low production and the improvement in the labor market, which shows that productivity growth is unusually low.
□Note: from dis "apart, off"+ crepare "to rattle, crack."

6. Dearth noun [durth]
insufficient or lack of supply; inadequate quantity or number; scarcity
■Example: The dearth of new housing, which is related to the fast growing population and continued rationing of mortgage funds for first-time buyers, has been a main factor behind the severe increase of rental fees.
□Note: related words: famine, paucity, shortage

7. Deluge noun [del-yooj, -yoozh, del-ooj, -oozh, dih-looj, -loozh]
an overwhelming quantity or amount, such as a flood
■Example: The office of the mayor was deluged with phone calls after the strong remarks of the mayor about the recent disaster.
□Note: It also means great flood.

8. Conflagration noun [kon-fluh-grey-shuhn]
a large, destructive fire; uncontrolled fire
■Example: According to the authorities, the wildfire in Michigan’s Lower Peninsula was 56% contained today; much worse compared to yesterday’s 40%, as the conflagration has destroyed 87 structures, including 29 homes and cabins.
□Note: Did your country ever have a conflagration?

9. Spillage noun [spil-ij]
the act of allowing a fluid to escape; spilling
■Example: Nine members of the staff were taken to the hospital after a chemical spillage at the Isoda School.
□Note: spill + age

10. Outage noun [ou-tij]
a stoppage in the functioning of a machine due to a failure in the power supply, as in electricity; temporary suspension of operation
■Example: Due to India’s frequent power outage, lots of concerns have been raised that the energy demand of the region will not be able to be meet.
□Note: When was the last time you experienced an outage in your country?

Part2: Exercise 1



Give the word being asked for each number.

■transgression ■infringement ■disparity ■dissension ■discrepancy
■dearth ■deluge ■spillage ■conflagration ■outage


____________________1. a breach; a violation of a law, regulation, right or obligation, or agreement
____________________2. strong disagreement; difference of opinion especially among those expected to cooperate
____________________3. the condition of being different or inconsistent, as between facts and claims
____________________4. a large, destructive fire; uncontrolled fire
____________________5. a violation of a law, command or duty
____________________6. a stoppage in the functioning of a machine due to a failure in the power supply, as in
electricity; temporary suspension of operation
____________________7. the act of allowing a fluid to escape; spilling
____________________8. having no similarity or equality, as in age, rank, degree, etc.; inequality
____________________9. an overwhelming quantity or amount, such as a flood
____________________10. insufficient or lack of supply; inadequate quantity or number; scarcity

Part2: Exercise 2



Choose the correct words to complete the sentences below.


1. Due to the _______________ of forces and weapons of the Syrian government and rebels, there was a discussion about whether the United States and other Western countries should arm the rebels by providing weapons.

a. dearth      b. deluge      c. transgression      d. disparity


2. According to health environmentalists, the evaporation off the ________________ of gas from overfilling is a possibility; this will contribute to the air pollution problem which we are already facing now.

a. spillage     b. deluge      c. disparity     d. overflowing


3. An eyewitness reported that he saw some campers setting a fire in the woods. The police said that it is possible that the woods were set on fire by the campers as some witnesses claimed, and the _______________ raged.

a. conflagration     b. outage     c. spillage     d. dissension


4. The weather forecast in Beijing warned about more rain while residents are still clearing debris from the weekend ____________________. Last Saturday, the heavy rain overpowered the drainage system of the city. As a result, cars and houses were submerged. It was noted that it was the heaviest rain they have had in sixty years.

a. conflagration     b. death     c. deluge     d. retreat


5. The airline company said that the cause of the cancellation of eight flights and the delay of 456 others was the computer _________________, which was the result of an equipment failure. The operations will start again tomorrow morning.

a. outage     b. deluge     c. discrepancy     d. dearth


6. A marketer of popular vitamins for children is refunding an estimated 2 million dollars to its customers after acknowledging that its vitamins contained only a fraction of the nutritional substance the label claimed. The ______________ was even higher for vitamins for smaller children.

a. outage     b.  deluge    c. discrepancy     d. dearth


7. According to the police, one of the doctors of a very popular hospital was accused of using a small camera clipped to a newspaper to record video up a woman's skirt at a train station waiting area. A woman who witnessed the _______________ said that the man holds the paper and moves his hand very slightly as a woman stands in front of him.

a. transgression     b. homage      c. deluge      d. outage


8. The new goal of the Center for Copyright Information is to educate internet users about what is and isn't _________________. According to them, ISP’s will be able to monitor the contents being uploaded on the internet. If the ISP has been associated with allegedly illegal file sharing, an alert and information about what to do and how to get legal contents will be sent to the subscriber.

a. discrepancy    b. infringement    c. dissension     d. education


9. In the agriculture industry, infrastructure is one of the main and most expensive hindrances to expanding its local distribution. Many farmers and sellers said that there is a ________________ of infrastructure available to deliver fruits and vegetables.

a. spillage    b. discrepancy     c. dearth     d. supply


10. One of the most common problems of parents is the adolescent phase of their children. According to psychologist, families sometimes need professional help, especially if the parent and adolescent fight all the time, or if arguments lead to physical violence. It is rare that the cause of _________________ in the family is only one person.

a. discrepancy    b. dissension    c. disparity     d. dearth