17：英検対策1級（Eiken Grade 1）
46: Eiken Grade 1 Vocabularies Lesson 46
Part 1: Vocabulary words
something that causes unavoidable danger or risk; a chance of being harmed or injured
■Example: Many parents are expressing their concerns that unfinished building work on the school will be a safety hazard to primary students.
□Note: In sports, a hazard is an obstacle, such as a sand trap that can be found on a golf course.
2. Jeopardy noun [jep-er-dee]
a possibility of incurring loss, exposure to death; hazard or risk of being harmed or injured
■Example: He became popular for trying to fight for his rights but his business may be in jeopardy as a result.
□Note: In law, jeopardy means the danger of being found guilty.
3. Pandemonium noun [pan-duh-moh-nee-uhm]
a condition of extreme confusion and unrestrained disorder; noise
■Example: Many people have high expectations that the Japanese soccer team will win the game. When the team nearly scored, pandemonium broke out.
□Note: Have you seen pandemonium in your town?
4. Predicament noun [pri-dik-uh-muhnt for 1, 3; pred-i-kuh-muhnt for 2]
an unpleasantly difficult, dangerous, or troublesome situation
■Example: NASA’s current predicament of whether they can send a human crew to Mars or not was blamed on the politicians who control their funds tightly.
□Note: Logic: one of the basic states or classifications described by Aristotle into which all things can be placed; a category.
5. Mayhem noun [mey-hem, mey-uhm]
infliction of violent injury on a person or thing; violent disturbance
□Note: In law, mayhem is the crime of intentionally inflicting bodily injury on another as to make the victim less capable, such as maiming or crippling a person.
6. Plight noun [plahyt]
a condition or situation, especially a bad or unfortunate one
■Example: The President and other politicians discussed the plight of the earthquake victims.
□Note: As a verb, plight means to make a promise solemnly and formally; to commit to something, especially in marriage.
7. Hindrance noun [hin-druhns]
a person or a thing that stops, prevents or impedes an action or progress; the condition of being hindered
■Example: The experience of being young, independent, and starting out alone is more a help than a hindrance.
□Note: Antonym: aid
At no point in my early political life did I experience any obstacles or suggestions that my background would be a hindrance.
8. Impediment noun [im-ped-uh-muhnt]
obstacle, hindrance, especially a physical defect that hinders normal or easy speech
■Example: Some people of this country think that the bursting population has been an impediment to the country’s progress.
□Note: comes from the root word “impede”
In law, impediment refers to something that obstructs the making of a legal contract.
9. Impasse noun [im-pas, im-pas]
a situation or position from which there is no way to escape or to progress; a road having no exit
■Example: The union president said that if the impasse is not resolved, the union will instruct school personnel to close primary and secondary schools. The government said that they will release funds soon.
□Note: Synonyms: stalemate, standstill, standoff, dead end
10. Stalemate noun [steyl-meyt]
a situation or a position in which no further action can be taken or progress is blocked
■Example: The negotiations for the salary increase of the employees are at a stalemate.
□Note: Synonyms: impasse, standoff, standstill
Part2: Exercise 1
Give the word being asked for each number.
____________________1. obstacle, hindrance, especially a physical defect that hinders normal or easy speech
____________________2. a condition of extreme confusion and unrestrained disorder; noise
____________________3. a condition or situation, especially a bad or unfortunate one
____________________4. something that causes unavoidable danger or risk; a chance of being harmed or injured
____________________5. a person or a thing that stops, prevents or impedes an action or progress; the condition of being hindered
____________________6. a situation or position from which there is no way to escape or to progress; a road having no exit
____________________7. infliction of violent injury on a person or thing; violent disturbance
____________________8. a situation or a position in which no further action can be taken or progress is blocked
____________________9. a possibility of incurring loss, exposure to death; hazard or risk of being harmed or injured
____________________10. an unpleasantly difficult, dangerous, or troublesome situation
Part2: Exercise 2
Choose the correct words to complete the sentences below.
1. One resident recalled the moment the quake struck and according to him there was _____________ on the streets. People were running and screaming. After the Himalayan earthquake in Nepal, people were terrified that it would happen again.
a. jeopardy b. pandemonium c. hazard d. acrimony
2. Because of the internet _______________ and a storm threat, the trial hearing for the high-profile terrorism suspect was cancelled. It was rescheduled for the third time. The citizens were very disappointed, saying that there must be a conspiracy.
a. predicament b. hindrance c. jeopardy d. outage
3. Tanishq Abraham, a nine-year-old prodigy from California, became a member of Mensa at the age of four and gives talks to NASA as well. He has a private tutor at home because a regular class is too easy and won’t challenge him. However, his _______________ is that ironically several colleges won’t accept him because of his age.
a. predicament b. outage c. plight d. Hazard
4. Authorities said that the levels of nitrogen found to be above national safety levels in a town of Massachusetts were not a health _____________, but the air quality levels are being monitored closely. People were advised not to panic and not to spread wrong information on the internet and SMS.
a. plight b. impediment c. hazard d. hindrance
5. The popular singer cancelled her concerts when she was in _______________ of losing her voice entirely and needing surgery on her vocal chords. According to her, it was her doctor’s advise to cancel her concerts and have a rest.
a. jeopardy b. plight c. flight d. hindrance
6. The charity for the protection of cats continues their efforts for their project to better protect the rare Scottish cats. One of the volunteers said that the project increased the people’s understanding of the ___________ of the Scottish wildcats.
a. pandemonium b. impasse c. plight d. mayhem
7. The missing 9-year-old boy with autism and a speech _______________ was found safe on a train at about 2:00 this afternoon. Reports said that the boy ran out of school at 9:00 in the morning. The parents of the young boy criticized and advised the school principal to have more security at the school.
a. hindrance b. impediment c. impasse d. jeopardy
8. The long-standing tensions between the two tribes in India’s northeastern province erupted into bloodshed last week. Six people were reported dead and 26 were injured. The reason for the ______________ is not yet known and still under investigation.
a. mayhem b. hindrance c. jeopardy d. plight
9. After being in prison for two years, Duan Jackson, a 33-year-old an entrepreneur, admits that his conviction will be a _________________ in business for a long time. In spite of it, he is planning to continue running his business as it is his only bread and butter.
a. mayhem b. hindrance c. jeopardy d. plight
10. The intelligence officers had negotiations with the kidnappers of the two American and Indian tour guides, but negotiations have reached ___________________, and still there is no progress reported. There were rumors that the families of the victims were negotiating with the suspects on their own. Authorities said that would worsen the case.
a. hindrance b. jeopardy c. hazard d. stalemate