16：英検対策準1級（Eiken Grade Pre-1）
34: Eiken Grade Pre-1 Vocabularies Lesson 34
Part 1: Vocabulary words
the state or condition of being equal
■Example: The equality of the rich and the poor is clearly shown in everyone’s right to vote.
□Note: How is the equality between men and women evident in companies in your country?
2. Institution noun [in-sti-too-shuh n, -tyoo-]
an organization that was established for the advancement of a particular cause or program
■Example: Even though there were a lot of educational institutions that have already been established, the educational system of our country still has a lot of areas to work on.
□Note: It came from an Old French word which means ‘established law or practice’.
3. Circulation noun [sur-kyuh-ley-shuh n]
the act of moving in a circuit; the act of passing from one place or person to another
■Example: The circulation of rumors about the pregnancy of the princess happened incredibly fast.
□Note: This word is also used in the idiom ‘in circulation’, which means to actively participate in social or business life.
4. Tip noun [tip]
pointed end of an object; the top of something (like a mountain)
■Example: His eye turned red after he accidentally poked it with the tip of his pencil.
hint or idea
■Example: Could you give me some tips on how to pass the exam with flying colors? Note: This word is also used in the idiom ‘tip one’s hand’, which means to disclose one’s plans or real feelings.
5. Scheme noun [skeem]
the design or plan or course of action to be followed
■Example: The subtlety of his devious scheme finally won him a spot on the board of directors.
□Note: This word can also be used as a verb which means ‘to plan or to plot’.
6. Promotion noun [pruh-moh-shuh n]
the act of raising to a more important or responsible and higher rank or position
■Example: He has been with the company for only 6 years, but because of his hard work, diligence and exceptional performance, he has already received a promotion.
□Note: What do you think are some factors that should be considered for the promotion at work?
7. Avoidance noun [uh-void-ns]
the act of staying away or keeping something from happening
■Example: Living a truly happy life requires the avoidance of all negative thoughts.
□Note: How do we ‘avoid’ getting in trouble?
8. Recess noun [ri-ses, ree-ses]
a break or a temporary rest or stoppage of activities
■Example: Many witnessed the accident that involved a child because it happened during the students’ recess.
□Note: This word comes from the Latin word recessus, which means ‘going back or retreat’.
9. CEO noun
the acronym of chief executive officer; the president of a huge company
■Example: Sindhuja Rajaraman, a fourteen-year-old girl, is considered as one of the youngest CEOs in the world. She’s the CEO of Seppan, which is an animation company in India.
□Note: Name one of the most prominent CEOs in Japan.
10. Plantation noun [plan-tey-shuh n]
a large farm where different crops are grown
■Example: We dropped by a plantation during our educational trip and some of the farmers there taught us how they grow quality crops.
□Note: Are there any plantations near your house?
Part 2: Exercise 1
Give the word being asked for each number.
___________1. the act of moving in a circuit; the act of passing from one place or person to another
___________ 2. a large farm where different crops are grown
___________ 3. a break or a temporary rest or stoppage of activities
___________ 4. the act of staying away or keeping something from happening
___________ 5. the state or condition of being equal
____________6. the acronym of chief executive officer; the president of a huge company
___________ 7. an organization that was established for the advancement of a particular cause or program
___________ 8. the act of raising to a more important or responsible and higher rank or position
___________ 9. pointed end of an object; the top of something (like a mountain)
___________ 10. the design or plan or course of action to be followed
Part 2: Exercise 2
Choose the correct words to complete the sentences below.
1. We have revised the evaluation sheet for the ______________of high performing employees in your department. It's about time that deserving workers be given an opportunity for career growth.
2. The city representative proposed a new ________________ for how to shelter their thousands of illegal settlers in their slum area. The proposal is still hanging though since the budget for the program will be really costly.
3. In an ideal justice system, both the accused and the victim should be treated with ____________. Justice should be a blind scale---weighing through reason, not through colors, riches or power.
4. Contrary to people's beliefs, an economic recession period is the best time to spend money and to invest. This is to encourage financial activities by putting our money in _____________, which can consequently help in making the economy active.
5. On New Year's Day, many people climb to the _________ of the mountain to welcome the first sunrise of the year. In Japan, they call this custom ‘Hatsuhinode’. Japanese people believe that this will bring them a year of good fortune.
6. In developing countries, government ______________ that cater to orphans can hardly survive because of the low budgets given to them by the government. Most of them can only get by through donations from rich people or politicians.
7. The order for the shutdown of the _____________was released by the city hall yesterday afternoon. More than 600 farmers are expected to lose their jobs because it’s the biggest farm or estate in their town.
8. Some people have managed to use defense mechanisms for the ____________of emotional and mental pain. However, they say that excessive use of them can be very harmful to one’s psychological health because evading the causes doesn’t actually solve the problem.
9. It's no easy task to choose the most appropriate person for the highest position in the company. The board of directors must consider how the candidate for ____________ understands the company, its culture and its operations.
10. The judge was forced to put the trial on _____________ because of the uncontrollable reaction of the people inside and outside the courtroom. The case was overly sensationalized, stimulating aggression from the people that consequently made the judge call for the break.