16：英検対策準1級（Eiken Grade Pre-1）
36: Eiken Grade Pre-1 Vocabularies Lesson 36
Part 1: Vocabulary words
being ahead in development, knowledge, progress, etc.
■Example: With strides in science, cosmetic formulas have become more advanced.
□Note: Used as a verb, it means to move or bring forward (e.g. The general advanced his troops to the new position.)
2. Commercial adjective (kuh-mur-shuhl)
of, pertaining to, or characteristic of commerce
■Example: U.S. military communication satellites are gradually finding commercial uses.
□Note: In Radio and Television, commercial (n.) refers to advertisements (e.g. Toyota invests a lot of money in TV commercials to promote their products.)
3. Successor noun (suhk-ses-er)
a person who succeeds another in an office, position, or the like
■Example: Prince Charles, the Prince of Wales, is the presumed successor to Queen Elizabeth II should the latter die or become incapacitated to rule Great Britain and its territories.
□Note: Who do you think will be the successor of Emperor Akihito of Japan?
4. Particle noun (pahr-ti-kuhl)
a minute portion, piece, fragment, or amount
■Example: Higgs boson is one of the smallest subatomic particles ever discovered.
□Note: In Grammar, particle refers to a small word of functional or relational use, as an article, preposition, or conjunction, whether of a separate form class or not (some of the most common prepositions belonging to the particle category: along, away, back, by, down, forward, in, off, on, out, over, round, under, up).
5. Hospitalization noun (hos-pi-tl-uh-zey-shuhn)
the act, process, or state of being hospitalized
■Example: Elderly people who get a flu vaccine have lower hospitalization rates than those who do not.
□Note: Is it common in your country to have hospitalization insurance?
6. Diplomat noun (dip-luh-mat)
a person appointed by a national government to conduct official negotiations and maintain political, economic, and social relations with another country or countries
■Example: Mr. Hayashi, Japan’s diplomat to the UK, wanted to strengthen his country’s relationship with the UK.
□Note: How important is it to send diplomats of your country to other countries?
7. Astronomer noun (uh-stron-uh-mer)
an expert in astronomy; a scientific observer of the celestial bodies
■Example: Hiroshi Abe is a Japanese astronomer noted for his numerous discoveries, including his 2007 discovery of the Nova Vulpeculae, a bright star appearing in the constellation Vulpecula.
□Note: Its root word, astronomy, comes from the Greek word astronomia, which literally means star arrangement.
8. Utility adjective (yoo-til-i-tee)
a public service, such as a telephone or electric-light system, a streetcar or railroad line, or the like
■Example: Utilities such as gas, water and especially electricity in Tokyo, Japan are consideredto be among the world's most expensive.
□Note: What are the other utility bills that you pay in your country?
9. Conversion noun (kuhn-vur-zhuhn, -shuhn)
change in character, form, or function
■Example: This spacious, detached room is undergoing a conversion to serve as a library.
□Note: related words are changeover and transition.
10. Compartment noun (kuhm-pahrt-muhnt )
one of the sections into which an area, especially an enclosed space, is divided or partitioned
■Example: Some airlines allow small dogs to travel in the aircraft cabin, while others allow pets to travel in the cargo compartment.
□Note: Compartment comes from the Latin word compartiri, which means to divide.
Part 2: Exercise 1
Give the word being asked for each number.
_______________ 1. of, pertaining to, or characteristic of commerce
_______________ 2. being ahead in development, knowledge, progress, etc.
_______________ 3. one of the sections into which an area, especially an enclosed space, is divided or partitioned
_______________ 4. change in character, form, or function
_______________ 5. expert in astronomy; a scientific observer of the celestial bodies
_______________ 6. a public service, such as a telephone or electric-light system, a streetcar or railroad line, or the like
_______________ 7. a person who succeeds another in an office, position, or the like
_______________ 8. the act, process, or state of being hospitalized
_______________ 9. a minute portion, piece, fragment, or amount
______________ 10. a person appointed by a national government to conduct official negotiations and maintain political, economic, and social relations with another country or countries
Part 2: Exercise 2
Choose the correct words to complete the sentences below.
1. Japan has one of the most ___________ weapon defense technologies in the world. It is confident that it can defend itself against other countries that threaten their independence and national security.
2. The _________ of Apple’s iPhone 4Gs, the iPhone 5, will likely be released this September, 2012. Avid fans of Apple products are already counting the days to see the advanced features of the gadget.
3. Aviva is one of the most prominent insurance companies in the UK because it covers up to as much as 60-100% of _________ bills. However, everyone was surprised to find out that despite how large the company is, it still needed to axe 1200 jobs.
4. Juno was the third asteroid to be discovered by _____________ after the discovery of Ceres and Pallas. Karl Harding, a German who studied the stars, was the one who found it early in the 19th century.
5. Giving the air conditioner a break during the work day is one of the ways to lessen your electric ____________ bill. This is especially true during the summer season when the demand for electricity is higher.
6. The incident was almost declared an accident and free fromany malicious motives. However, when special investigators stepped in, they were able to gather evidence from the ______________ of broken glass on the floor that it was a murder.
7. The MTI Company spent a lot of money for the marketing of their newly manufactured product. The risk that the company took paid off because of its extremely effective ______________that raised their company's sales by 35%.
8. The _____________ of quantities from one unit of measurement to another is actually not as difficult as it looks. We just have to remember the equalities between the two quantities and perform basic mathematics operations.
9. An impending war was avoided when one of the parties sent a _____________ to the other for peace talks. At first, political analysts thought it was inevitable; however, due to tactful negotiations, the two countries were able to settle their conflicts under certain conditions.
10. Always remember to keep your emergency supplies in the most accessible _____________of your cabinet. Also, keep in mind to store them in a storage area that's completely free from any extreme and unsecured conditions.