16：英検対策準1級（Eiken Grade Pre-1）
06: Eiken Grade Pre-1 Vocabularies Lesson 6
Part 1: Vocabulary words
a system involving the interactions between a community of living organisms in a particular area and its nonliving environment
■Example: The whole purpose of the ecosystem is to sustain life.
2. Expand verb (ik-spand)
to increase in extent, size, volume, scope, etc.
■Example: You can expand your knowledge by reading and studying.
□Note: expandable (adj), expandability (noun)
3. Satellite noun (sat-l-ahyt)
a device designed to be launched into orbit around the earth, another planet, the sun, etc.
■Example: The first successful American satellite was launched in January 1958.
□Note: The first artificial Earth satellite was Sputnik 1, launched by the Soviet Union in October1957.
4. Lessen verb (les-uhn)
to make less or reduce
■Example: Quit smoking so that you can lessen your risk of cancer.
□Note: How can you personally lessen the effects of global warming?
5. Spot verb (spot)
to detect or recognize; locate or identify by seeing
■Example: I spotted my hiding son under the table.
□Note: adjective - spottable, unspottable
6. Spacecraft noun (speys-kraft)
a manned or unmanned vehicle designed to orbit the earth or travel to celestial objects for the purpose of research, exploration
■Example: An upgraded Russian unmanned spacecraft successfully linked up with the International Space Station on Sunday on its second attempt to test a new docking system
□Note: Synonym: spaceship
7. Archaeologist noun (ahr-kee-ol-uh-jist)
a person who studies man’s past by scientific analysis of the material remains of his cultures
■Example: The archeologist was equipped with the tools for proper scientific expedition.
□Note: Archeologists have one of the harder roles, but they can become powerful late in the game. They are often called Arcs for short.
8. Cells noun (sel)
Biology. a usually microscopic structure containing nuclear and cytoplasmic material enclosed by a semipermeable membrane and, in plants, a cell wall; the basic structural unit of all organisms
■Example: A healthy cell does not turn into a cancer cell overnight.
□Note: A cell is the basic unit of all living things except viruses.
9. Species noun (spee-sheez)
distinct sort or kind
■Example: There are many species of spiders in Africa.
□Note: The term can be used to refer to any group of related things: “This species of novel has become quite popular in recent years.”
10. Atmosphere noun (at-muhs-feer)
a general pervasive feeling or mood
■Example: I like the atmosphere in my parents’ house. It’s cozy.
□Note: What is the atmosphere in an Olympic game?
Part 2: Exercise 1
Give the word being asked for each number.
_____________ 1. distinct sort or kind
_____________ 2. a device designed to be launched into orbit around the Earth, another planet, the sun, etc.
_____________ 3. a person who studies man’s past by scientific analysis of the material remains of his cultures
_____________ 4. a system involving the interactions between acommunity of living organisms in a particular area and its nonliving environment
_____________ 5. a usually microscopic structure containing nuclearand cytoplasmic material enclosed by a semipermeable membrane and, in plants, a cell wall; the basic structural unit of all organisms.
_____________ 6. to increase in extent, size, volume, scope, etc.
_____________ 7. a general pervasive feeling or mood
_____________ 8. a manned or unmanned vehicle designed to orbit the earth ortravel to celestial objects for the purpose of research, exploration
_____________ 9. to make less or reduce
_____________ 10. to detect or recognize; locate or identify by seeing
Part 2: Exercise 2
Choose the correct words to complete the sentences below.
1. When humans modify an ecosystem to gain something, it often has negative effects on other components of the _____________, leading to trade-offs. For instance, increased food production tends to bring about reductions in biodiversity.
2. Many people are aware that they need to ____________ their spending and increase their savings if they wish to accumulate wealth and income in their later years.
3. Those who put themselves out there as financial professionals who are actually participating in criminal behavior are not going to be easy to _______ as their illicit activities are likely to be well covered.
4. Build trust with your team members by spending one-on-one time in an _________ of honesty and openness.
5. Many of the _________ that are now facing imminent extinction do so not because people have set out to destroy them - but rather because they have stepped in the path of his "progress”, wherein of all the causes of indirect extinction the most widespread and devastating must be the destruction of habitats.
6. Researchers do not confine themselves to facts that have already been established. They continue furthering their studies sometimes to the point of opposing facts to ____________ different bodies of knowledge.
7. Who would think that a miniscule capsule which is only 100 nanometers big, could have the power to kill cancer ____________? Its advantage is that it targets only the defective ones because it can distinguish which ones are healthy and which ones are cancerous.
8. Many who aspire to become a/an____________ are usually trained by sending them out on expeditions that sometimes last for a year or for a week. The travel, the people they meet during the training period, as well as the thrill of finding out new things make them more interested in the field.
9. The Delta IV rocket was stealthily launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base. Some said that the rocket was kept secret to the public because it carries a spy ___________ that can gather information that typical satellite cannot detect.
10. One of the most prominent ___________ that Japan had was the Hayabusa, which was literally translated as ‘Pergrine Falcon”. It landed on Asteroid Itokawa to study its color, composition, history, shape, spin, and topography.