17：英検対策1級（Eiken Grade 1）
17: Eiken Grade 1 Vocabularies Lesson 17
Part 1: Vocabulary words
to treat (a person or group of people) in a cruel or unfair way
■Example: I believe that a dictator who oppresses his people is threatened to lose his wealth and power.
□Note: To oppress is to abuse, burden
2. Subjugate verb [suhb-juh-geyt]
to defeat and gain control of (someone or something) by the use of force : to conquer and gain the obedience of (a group of people, a country, etc.)
■Example: Some Muslim groups plan to subjugate the Christian population.
□Note: to bring under control and governance as a subject
3. Suppress verb [suh-pres]
to not allow yourself to feel, show, or be affected by (an emotion)
■Example: Women are known for being emotional; men on the other hand would suppress their emotions instead of crying it all out.
□Note: The origin of the word suppress is the Latin word suppressus.
4. Subvert verb [suhb-vurt]
to corrupt by an undermining of morals, allegiance, or faith
■Example: The other team subtly tries to subvert our developments in our case study.
□Note: If you were losing against a stronger team, would you try to subvert their team just to win?
5. Encroach verb [en-krohch]
to gradually move or go into an area that is beyond the usual or desired limits
■Example: The team planned to encroach the rest of the underground river.
□Note: invade; crash in ; trench ; trespass
6. Deter verb [dih-tur]
to cause (someone) to decide not to do something
■Example: Law makers should deter thieves by requiring longer term imprisonment if one commits the crime.
□Note: Synonyms are discourage, dissuade, and inhibit.
7. Retard verb [ri-tahrd]
to slow down the development or progress of (something)
■Example: The medication will only retard the progression of his blindness.
□Note: The word retard comes from the Latin word retardare, meaning slow.
8. Avert verb [uh-vurt]
to turn (your eyes, gaze, etc.) away or aside
■Example: He tried to avert all distractions just to achieve his goal.
□Note: to prevent (something bad) from happening
9. Balk verb [bawk]
to suddenly show that you do not want to do something : to refuse to do what someone else wants you to do
■Example: The case was close to justice; however, the witness decided to balk with the lawyers.
□Note: In the field of baseball, balk means an occurrence in which a pitcher stops suddenly or makes an illegal movement after starting to throw a pitch.
10. Stifle noun [stahy-fuhl]
to kill by depriving of oxygen
to cut off (as the voice or breath)
■Example: A friend stifling a friend’s sneeze when the villain is near, I’ve seen it a thousand times in movie scenes and even in animated films.
□Note: Stifle can also be the joint above the hock in the hind leg of a quadruped (as a horse or dog) corresponding to the human knee.
Part2: Exercise 1
Give the word being asked for each number.
__________ 1 to kill by depriving of oxygen; to cut off (as the voice or breath)
__________ 2. to cause (someone) to decide not to do something
__________ 3. to defeat and gain control of (someone or something) by the use of force
__________ 4. to treat (a person or group of people) in a cruel or unfair way
__________ 5. to corrupt by an undermining of morals, allegiance, or faith
__________ 6. to slow down the development or progress of (something)
__________ 7. to not allow yourself to feel, show, or be affected by (an emotion)
__________ 8. to suddenly show that you do not want to do something : to refuse to do what someone else wants you to do
__________ 9. to gradually move or go into an area that is beyond the usual or desired limits
__________ 10. to turn (your eyes, gaze, etc.) away or aside
Part2: Exercise 2
Choose the correct words to complete the sentences below.
1. Do you plan on telling me the reason why he was trying to_________ the room he knew you were in? Or am I free to assume that you guys had a trivial fight, and that you are ashamed of telling me how it went?
a. balk b. avert c. suppress d. oppress
2. Freedom was something that our country was hungry for in numerous decades under his dictatorship. The day finally came that one nation had the courage and fought for what was rightfully theirs. The dictatorship finally ended; he and his family finally lost in trying to _________ the whole country, and justice and freedom served the nation again.
a. avert b. oppress c. subjugate d. encroach
3. Sometimes protecting yourself comes secondary to what you have with another person, family or friend. In our case, I had to __________ the pain I feel every time they give me chemo therapy. I had to stay positive that I would be well again. I have to keep myself strong and keep that hope alive for my family.
a. suppress b. oppress c. deter d. encroach
4. The day she was diagnosed with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, she and her family were offered different treatments, from chemotherapy and radiation to immunotherapy. However, despite all the options, she seemed to have given up all hope when she said that the treatments would only __________ the spread of cancer in a person’s body, and that she does not want her family to be given false hope that she will get better.
a. deter b.retard c. subjugate d. encroach
5. Last night I was watching a documentary on the Discovery Channel. The documentary delved into a murder case waiting to be solved. Forensics later on concluded that the criminal chose to _________ his victim to death before robbing the whole house.
a. suppress b. deter c. stifle d. retard
6. I’ve been a fan of reality talent shows, and usually during auditions they feature the lives of those who have auditioned just before they go up on stage and sing. One contestant struck me the most because, despite all the trials he had from being drug dependent to battling it in rehab, this did not _____ him from pursuing his dreams.
a. subvert b. retard c. deter d. oppress
7. I’m planning to take my friends out caving this weekend to give them a taste of adventure in their first tour in my hometown. I researched and talked to the cave experts, and we were advised to go with a professional caving team and bring all the necessary safety gear if we plan to __________ the areas where tourists are no longer allowed to go beyond.
a. subvert b. encroach c. retard d. subjugate
8. People who _________ other people should be ashamed of themselves. This only shows how immature they are in coping with their own weaknesses. Even in the field of psychology, it is said that acting superior over other people is a defense mechanism of those who are actually suffering from an inferiority complex.
a. subvert b. suppress c. oppress d. subjugate
9. Ever since the School Council and School Coordinators agreed to give students the freedom to oppose rules or policies they think are offensive to them, I’ve noticed how they’ve been trying to _________everything the school’s administrator has been trying to impose. I think this is why the guidelines on responsibility towards freedom should be made clear.
a. subvert b. deter c. retard d. balk
10. The recital should have been prepared for more than a month. Time and financial resources were not managed well. Everything did not go well, from the music to the stage sets. The dancers were all tired and uninspired; even the finale seemed to have ________ the most passionate dancer.
a. subverted b.balked c. retarded d. deterred