17：英検対策1級（Eiken Grade 1）
49: Eiken Grade 1 Vocabularies Lesson 49
Part 1: Vocabulary words
with much care in an extremely accurate & exact way
■Example: He is a meticulous researcher.
The witness was able to describe what he saw in meticulous detail.
□Note: The antonym of ‘meticulous’ is careless.
2. Cursory adjective [kur-suh-ree]
done or made rapidly without much care and probably not detailed
■Example: With just a cursory look at his patients, Dr. Jacobs can already tell what’s wrong with them.
Mary always meticulously organizes her things so even with a mere cursory glance she can tell if something is missing in her room.
□Note: The synonyms of 'cursory' are quick, brief, passing, haphazard.
3. Erratic adjective [ih-rat-ik]
inconsistent, random, or not regular; moving, changing, or acting in an unexpected or unusual manner .
■Example: Women are known to have erratic moods.
Emma is popular among her friends for her erratic behavior, but it came as a surprise when she cursorily called off her engagement.
□Note: In Geology, 'erratic' pertains to a boulder carried by glacial ice and deposited some distance from its place of origin.
4. Erroneous adjective [uh-roh-nee-uhs, e-roh-]
wrong, false, or not correct
■Example: Even experienced researchers have to meticulously do their jobs in order to avoid erroneous information.
English learners have to be careful when using prepositions; erroneous usage might lead to misunderstandings.
□Note: The antonym of 'erroneous' is accurate.
5. Derogatory adjective [dih-rog-uh-tawr-ee, -tohr-ee]
belittling; disrespect to something/someone
■Example: He got derogatory comments for saying “I will work as food,” instead of “I will work for food.”
His frankness towards his superior’s capability to lead wasn’t taken constructively but as a derogatory remark.
□Note: 'Derogatory' is from the late Latin word dērogātōrius which means cursing, equivalent to dērogā(re).
6. Detrimental adjective [de-truh-men-tl]
inimical; causing harm or damage
■Example: Despite the detrimental effects of smoking, people still can't quit such a bad habit.
□Note: Taking derogatory remarks seriously causes a detrimental impact on our health.
7. Diffident adjective [dif-i-duhnt]
not feeling confident, shy; meticulous about acting or speaking
■Example: Ever since he was humiliated in public, he became diffident and aloof.
You shouldn’t be diffident while being interviewed, the interviewer will know it.
□Note: Synonyms of 'diffident' are self-conscious, embarrassed, modest, unassuming and unconfident.
8. Dissident noun [dis-i-duhnt]
a person who opposes and criticizes the government
■Example: Some dissidents seem to abuse their freedom of speech.
He used to be a dissident politician, but now he’s totally pro-government.
□Note: as an adjective, always used before a noun
9. Disgruntled adjective [dis-gruhn-tld]
Unhappy, irritated, and disappointed about something
■Example: His wife was cursorily disgruntled. Companies must make sure to prevent or at least lessen disgruntled employees.
□Note: 'Disgruntle' is the verb form which means to make 'sulky' or 'discontented'.
10. Demoralized adjective [dih-mawr-uh-lahyzd, -mor-]
being diffident, demotivated, and hopeless
■Example: The scandal so gravely demoralized her that she decided to lock herself in her room for years.
The younger boxing champion quit for he was demoralized when a challenger twice his age was victorious in their match.
□Note: 'Demoralize' is the verb form which means to 'destroy the morale of (a person or persons)'.
Part2: Exercise 1
Give the word being asked for each number.
_________________ 1. unhappy, irritated, and disappointed about something
_________________ 2. not feeling confident, shy; meticulous about acting or speaking
_________________ 3. with much care in an extremely accurate & exact way
_________________ 4. belittling; disrespect to something/someone
_________________ 5. being diffident, demotivated, and hopeless
_________________ 6. inconsistent, random, or not regular moving, changing, or acting in an unexpected or unusual manner.
_________________ 7. wrong, false, or not correct
_________________ 8. done or made rapidly without much care and probably not detailed
_________________ 9. inimical; causing harm or damage
_________________ 10. a person who opposes and criticizes the government
Part2: Exercise 2
Choose the correct words to complete the sentences below.
1. Despite submitting supporting documents to prove the validity of her absence, her boss still penalized her. ______________, she submitted her immediate and irrevocable resignation hoping that through it she would be able to show him she was totally upset with the action taken.
a. Demoralized b. Disgruntled c. Diffident d. Detrimental
2. Studies show that corporal punishment has a _____________ effect on children, especially on their psychological well-being. However, there are still some parents or teachers who choose such a way to discipline children.
a. cursory b. meticulous c. diffident d. detrimental
3. The ________________ oil price greatly influences all the prices of the other goods, positively or otherwise. This is why everyone watches the changes in the price almost everyday to predict the changes that it will incur on prices of goods and commodities.
a. disgruntled b. dissident c. erratic d. erroneous
4. Apparently, the Hollywood actor mistakenly thought that he was in the Philippines when some customs officials harassed him, but he was too ____________ to admit that he was wrong. Stubbornly, he stood by the statement that he has already released to the media.
a. inaccurate b. diffident c. cursory d. meticulous
5. Their divorce not only __________________ her but her kids as well. Now, the kids refuse to go to school or to talk to anyone. They were then brought to the child psychologist for them to fight the disheartening and degrading feeling.
a. demoralized b. disgruntled c. derogatory d. dissident
6. Some journalists tend to fabricate stories just to earn money regardless of how ______________ the information is. Some of them can even escape law suits filed against them quite easily through the help of high-ranking officials who seek their help for protection.
a. erratic b. cursory c. demoralized d. erroneous
7. He has always been a ___________ person ever since he was a child so it’s no surprise that he became an activist. He’s often seen on TV walking on major streets of the city to oppose the changes that the government plans to impose.
a. dissident b. grumpy c. meticulous d. detrimental
8. My parents are good at cooking so with just a ____________ glance at the food that I am cooking, they already know that it lacks soy sauce. How I wish I could also acquire the special skills that they have in cooking.
a. detrimental b. cursory c. derogatory d. precise
9. Prince Harry’s ____________nude photos, which were taken in Las Vegas, didn’t merely affect himself but also the entire royal family as well. Their public relations officers are now working on cleaning the tarnished name of the family.
a. derogatory b. demoralized c. diffident d. cursory
10. As a first-time mom, Helen is quite ______________ about selecting what her baby needs to ensure that her baby will always have the best. When she was young, she didn’t think that she would turn out to be so particular about things in general.
a. erroneous b. scrupulous c. sloppy d. meticulous